The Framework of Active Aging Curriculum for Education of the Elderly and Its Evaluation: Normative Needs Perspective
參與學習以預防老化所帶來的負面影響，是高齡化先進國家的努力方向，聯合國世界衛生組織（World Health Organization, WHO）於2002年提出「活躍老化」理念，成為高齡社會願景與政策架構，目的在提升高齡者晚年的生活品質，追求活躍老化的晚年生活，已被認為是高齡社會的願景。然而，以我國的現況，從理念到實踐，卻還有明顯的落差需要彌補，如需求、課程、實踐等。本研究第一個目的是希望從規範性需求的概念，發展活躍老化課程架構，開始跨越這一步；其次，應用該架構探討高齡教育課程規劃者對於此一架構之重要性評定。本研究透過文獻分析與焦點座談方法發展課程架構，透過問卷調查樂齡學習中心、樂齡大學及長青學苑三類型之高齡教育課程規劃者對於架構之評析，共發出587份問卷，回收325份，有效回收率55.4%。本研究獲致五項結論，包括：一、活躍老化為高齡教育願景與課程實踐基礎獲規劃者認同；二、規劃者對於學習層面與主題之重要性有共識；三、規劃者認為運動保健與生活安全的學習層面重要；四、心靈成長及貢獻服務的學習被規劃者視為不重要；五、課程規劃者對於高齡教育的願景與目標有很高的共識。本研究提出五項建議，如應用本研究之課程架構作為規範性需求課程規劃之參考，持續開設架構中的學習主題，被規劃者認為重要的課程應多開設，被規劃者認為不重要的課程，是被忽視的課程，亦宜加強開設；政府補助的活動尤需強化規範性需求課程的提供。
Participating in learning activities to prevent problems of aging is the direction of nations which face the increase of aging population. In 2002, the World Health Organization identified “Active Aging” as the vision and policy framework of the aged society in order to enhance the quality of life among older people. Although pursuing active aging in the later part of life has become the vision of an aged society, the current status of that in Taiwan existed a big gap between the theory and practices such as needs, curriculum and instruction.
The purpose of this study was first to develop an active aging curriculum framework based on the concept of normative needs. Secondly, this study applied the framework on investigating the extent of its importance based on the evaluation of program planners. Research methods used in this study include literature review, focus group meeting and questionnaire. Literature review and the focus group meeting methods were applied to develop the curriculum framework. The questionnaire was distributed to survey the practitioners of curriculum development of the Lo-Ling Chung Sin (Active Aging Learning Centers), Lo-Ling Da Shue (Active Aging Learning Program in the University) and the Chan Chin Shue Yuan (The Evergreen Academy). 587 questionnaires were sent out and 325 returned, and the returned rate was 55.4%.
Results of this study revealed that active aging vision was recognized by the planners and was viewed as base of the curriculum and instruction. The learning dimensions and themes identified by the study were agreed by the planners. Planners recognize the importance of health and exercise courses and safety courses, and courses related to spiritual growth and individual contribution as not important. The vision and objective of education for elders were highly recognized by the planners. Five suggestions were proposed, including applying the framework to develop curriculum and providing courses identified by this study to not only those who viewed as important, but also those who ignored. Programs supported by the government’s funding should particularly emphasize courses which are related to the normative needs.
|關鍵詞||活躍老化高齡教育課程、高齡教育規範性需求課程、active aging curriculum for older people、normative needs curriculum for the elderly|