A Study of National Well-Being—Rankings and Factors
近年來，國民幸福感成為瞭解國家發展的重要趨勢之一。本研究以115個國家進行幸福感評比，並瞭解各國國民所得、教育年數、失業率以及每萬人口殺人犯數對於國家幸福感的影響情形。本研究運用聯合國開發計劃署（United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2014）的統計資料，將主觀幸福感分為對個人、對社區及對政府幸福感等面向進行分析。獲得結論如下：一、各國主觀幸福感前幾名多為先進國家，但為開發中國家的泰國與卡達其主觀幸福感卻名列前五大；二、在115個國家中，可以區分為高度、中度與低度幸福感，它們各有34、29與52個，高度幸福感國家不全然是國民所得高，很多是中、低度發展國家；三、國民所得與失業率是影響個人主觀幸福感、對社區及對政府幸福感面向的重要因素，其中，高度與中度幸福國家的國民教育年數愈長，對政府面向的幸福感愈低。
In recent years, the well-being of people has become an important index of national development. This study used the subjective well-being of people in 115 contries to investigate how the well-being of people was impacted by the per capital income, mean of school yeas, unemployment rate (%), and homicide rate (per 100,000). The secondary data was collected from UNDP (2014), and the subjective well-being was divided into the perceptions of individual well-being, perceptions about community, and perceptions about government. Our findings were as follows: 1. High-ranking subjective well-being is more likely of a developed country than of a developing country; the two exceptions are Thailand and Qatar, which are develping countries but are in the top five of the ranking. 2. Thirteen variables are used to categorize 115 countries into three groups: high (34 countries), middle (29 countries) and low (52 countries) well-being countries. High well-being countries are not necessarily high per capital income countries; in constrant, many of them are developing or underdeveloped countries. 3. The per capital income and the unemployment rate are two significant factors in people’s subjective well-being; however, in the high and the middle well-being countries, as mean of school years increases, the well-being of people in perceptions about government decreases.
|關鍵詞||主觀幸福感、失業率、每萬人口殺人犯數、國民所得、教育年數、subjective well-being、unemployment rate、homicide rate per 10000、per capital income、mean of school yeas|