Principal’s Game: Rules, Skills, and Capital
古典的校長領導理論研究大多是著重於個人及組織內部之特質論、行為論、權變論等來探討校長領導行為，即便是新興的轉型領導，也都是侷限在學校組織內部的領導行為範疇， 缺乏社會結構外部的理解與參照。然而， 沒有巨觀視角的教育領導， 就不知道如何有效地實踐微觀的教育領導， 而易陷入「人在廬山中， 不知廬山真面目」之視野困境。基於前述，Bourdieu 的場域（field）概念提供一個理解社會世界的架構，亦即每一個場域都有其自己的邏輯與規則。具體而言，本研究以場域為概念，從遊戲牌局之隱喻探究公立中小學校長如何在當今教育場域結構下進行學校領導。本研究透過文獻探討、焦點團體訪談及個別訪談，獲得以下結論：以牌局為比喻可作為理解校長領導作為的分析架構、校長應瞭解規則的紅線及體制規則現況、體制規則上宜支持校長並鼓勵教師向上、增強校長的專業能力及心理素質、校長應妥善運用各項資源並將不利資源轉變成有利的資源、校長宜瞭解學校情境及影響校務運作的利害關係人並建立信任關係。基於前述，本研究提出具體建議，以供公立中小學校長及教育行政主管機關之參考。
Classical principals’ leadership theory focuses on individual traits, behavioral theory, contingency theory, etc. to explore principal leadership behavior. And the emerging transformational leadership is also limited to the leadership within the school organization. The scope of behavior lacks the understanding of the social structure. However, educational leaders without a grand perspective do not know how to effectively implement micro educational leadership, and are easy to fall into the dilemma of “people in Lushan but do not know the true face of Lushan.” Based on the foregoing, Bourdieu’s field concept provides a concept for understanding the social world, that is, each field has its own logic and rules. Specifically, this study takes the field as a concept and explores how the principals conduct school leadership under the current educational field from the metaphor of the game. This study has obtained the following through literature discussion, focus group interviews and individual interviews. The metaphor of the game can be used as an analytical framework to understand the leadership of the principal. The principal should understand the red line of the rules and the current state of the system rules. The system rules should support the principal and encourage principals to improve the professional competence and psychological quality. The resources should be properly used and the unfavorable resources should be transformed into favorable resources. The principal should understand the context of school and the stakeholders who influence the operation of the school and establish a trust relationship. Based on the above research conclusions, this study proposes the recommendations for school principals and educational administration authorities.