The Experience of Elementary School Counselors Using Art Materials in Child Counseling during the Art Therapy Training Program Training
本研究旨在探究國小輔導教師運用藝術媒材於兒童輔導之經驗。研究對象為十五位國小專任輔導教師， 在培訓期間將其所學習之藝術治療知能運用於輔導工作。本研究採用質性研究內容分析法，以焦點團體 訪談蒐集資料。研究結果包含六大主題、十七類概念：（1）透過創作歷程擴展助人者對兒童的理解： （a）提升對兒童的深度理解與包容、（b）著重當下互動，適時地給兒童回饋；（2）同在並見證兒童 在創作歷程的轉變：（a）尊重兒童的自主性給予發展空間、（b）營造正向的氛圍、（c）陪伴修復傷 痛、（d）協助發展問題解決能力；（3）藝術提供兒童心靈涵容處所：（a）突破口語表達的限制，透 過藝術創作將內心世界投射出來、（b）提供表達和釋放情緒的安全空間、（c）與媒材接觸連結感官感 受，觸碰情緒；（4）藝術創作作品正向賦能：（a）作品回顧提升自我意象、（b）作品象徵意義的內 化；（5）創作歷程促進正向輔導關係：（a）提供機會建立關係、（b）增加此時此地對話、（c）非語 言方式貼近兒童內在世界；（6）藝術媒材於兒童輔導實務進行之困境：（a）有些兒童不喜愛藝術創 作、（b）學校時間的限制、（c）媒材便利性影響運用意願。最後根據研究結果進行討論及說明本研究 之限制，並對國小輔導教師相關培育機構、在職專業增能以及未來研究提出建議。
In recent years, elementary school mental health needs have been in the spotlight. As demands for student counseling increase, the use of art therapy can be an expandable and flexible approach to child counseling for elementary school counselors. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of using art materials in child counseling by elementary school counselors. The subjects were 15 experienced school counselors who participated in a three-hour art therapy professional training program for eight weeks. The approach adopted in this training program included basic concepts of art therapy, art materials applications and experiences, group discussions, practical work demonstrations, and sharing experiences. The concept of art therapy was learned during the training process, and the trainees returned to their schools to verify the effectiveness of art therapy in child counseling. This study was an explorative, descriptive, and qualitative study. Data was collected from 15 subjects by two focus group interviews after the training program and analyzed using qualitative content. The results of the study showed that art therapy applied to child counseling revealed six major themes and seventeen concepts: (1) Expand the trainee’s understanding of children through the creative art process: (a) Enhance trainee’s deeper understanding and patience with children, (b) Focus on the present interaction with children while giving feedback; (2) Be present and witness children making changes during the creative art process: (a) Respect the autonomy of children by providing space as needed, (b) Create a positive atmosphere, (c) Accompany children to recover from emotional pain, (d) Develop problem-solving skills; (3) Provide children a safe place to comfort their minds: (a) Break through the limitations of verbal expression and project one’s inner world while processing artwork. (b) Provide children a safe space to express and release emotions, (c) Use art materials to connect with one’s sensory feelings and emotions; (4) Empower children through art products: (a) Review art products to enhance self-image, (b) Internalize the symbolic meaning of art products; (5) Promote positive therapeutic relationships through the creative art process: (a) Provide opportunities to build relationships, (b) Increase here and now conversations, (c) Gain a closer view into children’s inner world with non-verbal approaches; (6) Understand limitations of incorporating art into child counseling: (a) Some children do not like art making, (b) Restrictions of class time affect the arrangement of activities, (c) Art materials may not always be readily accessible. The following were discussed based on the results of the study: (1) Art therapy assists school counselors to enhance their understanding and patience with children, (2) Children have a sense of mastery in the art therapy process, (3) Art therapy is an avenue to self-exploration and empowerment of children through art therapy activity and the use of art materials, (4) Art therapy provides opportunities to promote therapeutic relationships and increase conversations here and now, (5) There are limitations of using art materials in child counseling. The results were compared and contrasted extensively with existing literature, and this study showed that the use of art materials in school counseling provided counselors a way to promote the treatment process and counseling relationships. Finally, based on the research results, this study suggested that multiple methods can be used in researching the experiences of school counselors and using art materials in child counseling for offering complementary insights. Moreover, the applications and suggestions of training institutions and professional development are discussed and proposed in the study.
|關鍵詞||兒童諮商與輔導、輔導教師、學校輔導、藝術治療、Art therapy、child counseling and guidance、school counseling、school counselor|