Implementation of Teacher Consultations in Elementary School Counseling: Comparison of a Dual Framework Phenomenal Field
本研究主要以輔導實務工作中教師諮詢者與教師求詢者的雙向視框，探究國小輔導實務工作中之教師諮 詢執行經驗。研究參與者包括8位具專業背景與實務經驗之教師諮詢者與7位曾參與諮詢經驗之教師求詢 者，採質性研究中之紮根理論為方法依據，以探究國小輔導實務工作中教師諮詢現況，增加雙方觀點的 理解以促進合作的開展，並從雙方可對照經驗中探究提升教師諮詢效能的可行方式。研究發現如下： （1）教師諮詢影響因子：其主要內涵有（a）諮詢者的專業承諾有助於自我專業角色的定位與困境的轉 化；（b）諮詢前先評估教師準備度、特質與信念，不過早進入工作階段；（c）互有主體性是教師諮詢 關係的重要體現；（d）不要忽略行政領導與組織氛圍對教師諮詢的影響。（2）輔導人員與教師諮詢經 驗之對照：其主要內涵有（a）角色定位不同顯現關注立場的根本差異；（b）輔導人員須要更多家長諮 詢的能力以協助親師溝通；（c）教師須要更多具體示範來協助諮詢目標的達成；（d）雙方抱持彈性與 開放，利於促成諮詢合作關係；（e）頻繁而短時間的機動性諮詢切合實務現場的需要。研究者依據上 述研究結果，進行綜合討論提升教師諮詢效能的可行方式，並據此對教師諮詢者、學校及相關系統提出 建議。
With the increase in the number of and diversity in student issues and the recent policy of hiring full-time school counselors in elementary schools, the importance and feasibility of teacher consultation deserves to be explored in depth. Teacher consultation can not only solve students’ problems but also improve teachers’ abilities to solve students’ problems, resulting in primary prevention of school-related problems. The importance of teacher consultation is highlighted by the efficiency and influence of counseling interventions and their ability to prevent future problems. Although counseling practitioners and teachers focus on assisting students’ adaptation to school life, it is not easy to successfully conduct teacher consultations. Teacher and counseling practitioners have their own role and position, which further alters the demands and expectations. This in turn widens the gap, making it increasingly difficult to establish cooperation. This study attempts to explore the experiences of both practitioners and teachers in teacher consultation in an attempt to improve their practical knowledge base and establish a clear, feasible path towards teacher consultation. Channeling knowledge will increase the possibility of cooperation and dialogue between teachers and counseling practitioners. Student counseling often works because of students’ willingness to cooperate and create a win-win situation for their well-being and others involved in the case.
This study is based on grounded theory and primarily focused on the dual framework of counseling practitioners and teachers to investigate the implementation and current status of teacher consultations in elementary schools. Participants included eight professional and experienced teacher consultants as well as seven teacher consultees who had participated in the consultation process. This study employed a qualitative research design. The findings of this study will enhance the understanding of the importance of teacher consultation from the perspectives of both practitioners and teachers to promote cooperation and increase the effectiveness of teacher consultations by examining overlapping experiences. In terms of the factors influencing the teacher consultation process, the study found that the professional commitment of the consultant not only helped the positioning of the self-professional role but also the resolution of the counseling dilemma. However, before conducting a teacher consultation, it was necessary to evaluate the teacher’s readiness to consult, traits, and educational beliefs. In addition, teacher consultation involved professional cooperation; thus, mutual subjectivity was an important manifestation of the consulting relationship and also a key factor in maintaining a smooth relationship. Finally, school counseling often needed to be combined with student services provided by other administrative units, in order to not overlook the impact of executive leadership and organizational climate on teacher consultations.
There were differences between the counselors’ and teachers’ consulting experiences. First, the roles of the teachers and counselors were different in terms of their concerns and the assistance they provided. Second, the students’ problems were mostly family related, and counselors need to have capacities for consultation with parents in order to assist teachers in their communication with their students’ parents. Third, teachers need more specific demonstrations to effectively achieve the consulting objectives. Fourth, both counselors and teachers need to be flexible and open to encourage consultation and cooperation. Finally, in teacher consultations, frequent, flexible, and short-term consultations are more in line with the needs of the situation.
Based on the above-mentioned findings, the researchers conducted a comprehensive discussion on the possible ways to improve the effectiveness of teacher consultation and ensure that there are trained and supervised practitioners and school counselors who can handle school and system related issues.
|關鍵詞||國小輔導、教師諮詢、雙向視框、Dual framework、elementary school counseling、teacher consultation|