Occupational Health and Risk Factors Among Healthcare Workers in Emergency Departments
改善急診室醫療人員的職業健康非常重要。儘管在工作場所健康促進的概念中已強調工作需求和環境對健康的影響，但對特定健康問題和風險因素的了解不足，造成工作場所為急診醫療人員制定相關提升職業健康措施的難度。因此，本研究旨在調查該特定群體的職業健康問題和相關風險因素。本研究調查臺灣九個急診室共403個醫護人員，利用描述性分析來探討人口統計學的分布情況與常見的健康問題；利用卡方檢驗和邏輯迴歸模型進一步分析風險因素與工作相關的傷害或疾病之間的關係。研究結果發現，急診醫護人員的不健康生活型態包括吸菸 (3%)、飲酒 (14.7%)、體重過重 (21.5%)；最常見的工作傷害與疾病則是開放性傷口 (53.1%)、肌肉骨骼疾病 (55%) 和心理健康相關疾病 (24.2%)。有身體健康問題的醫護人員表示工作造成的受傷或疾病的可能性，是沒有身體健康問題醫護人員的1.8倍；而認為某些姿勢和重複性動作有害健康的醫護人員表示造成工作相關傷害或疾病的可能性，是沒有認為姿勢和重複性動作有害健康醫護人員的兩倍多。此外，管理階層的努力與急診醫護人員短缺的議題，被認為是影響職業健康安全的重要工作環境因素。本研究顯示急診醫護人員不健康的生活型態與疾病傷害的比例，同時也發現工作環境因素的問題影響職業健康與安全的認知，本研究結果可作為未來急診工作場所健康促進計畫的重要參考依據。
Improving occupational health among health care workers in emergency departments is important. Although the influences of work demands and environment on health have been highlighted in the concept of workplace health promotion, inadequate knowledge about the specific health issues and the risk factors have increased the difficulty of developing effective workplace interventions to promote occupational health for health care workers in emergency departments. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the occupational health problems and the relevant risk factors among this particular group. Study surveyed 403 health care workers in Taiwanese 9 emergency departments. Descriptive analysis was used to explore the frequency distribution of demographic data and health problems. Further analysis about the relationships between risk factors and work-related injuries or diseases was conducted using Chi-square and logistic regression model. Smoking (3%), alcohol consumption (14.7%), and overweight (21.5%) are identified as unhealthy lifestyles among health care workers in emergency departments. Open wounds (53.1%), musculoskeletal disorders (55%), and mental health-related disorders (24.2%) are the common work-related injuries and diseases. Health care workers with physical health problems were more likely to report a work-related injury or disease than health care workers without physical health problems (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11-3.03, p < .05) . Moreover, participating health care workers who perceived that certain postures and repetitive motions were harmful were more likely to report a work-related injury or disease than health care workers who did not (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.32-3.50, p < .05). In addition, the workplace issues about managers endeavor to address the welfare among health care workers, and long-term staff shortage in emergency departments, are considered as the important factors affecting occupational health and safety among this group. This study provides the evidence of unhealthy lifestyles and occupational injuries among emergency departments workers, but also indicates the problem of working environment factors affects the perception of occupational health and safety. These results can be used as an important reference for future emergency workplace health promotion programs.
|關鍵詞||急診室、醫護人員、健康促進、職業健康與安全、工作場所風險因素、emergency department、health care workers、health promotion、occupational health and safety、workplace risk factors|