A Review of the Perceived Severity of School Bullying: Research Analyses and Implications
This research aims to review studies on the perceived severity of school bullying. The following three main issues are analyzed: (1) clarifying the connections between the frequency and the perceived severity of school bullying, (2) examining whether differences exist in the perceived severity of school bullying and the willingness to intervene in school bullying among teachers and students, and (3) exploring the possible factors that influence the perceived severity of school bullying.
The results of the literature review revealed the following: First, the frequency and the perceived severity of school bullying are different concepts; furthermore, these two constructs had low to moderate correlations. Second, teachers and students have different perceptions of the severity of bullying and different levels of willingness to intervene in various types of bullying. Teachers perceive physical bullying as more serious than other types of bullying, and they have higher willingness to intervene in physical bullying. Students in middle school and primary school have a greater perception of the severity of bullying for the relational and physical types. However, students have a higher willingness to intervene in verbal bullying. Third, students’ perceptions of the severity of school bullying may be affected by contextual factors, such as power imbalance, intention, and behavioral results.
Three implications were discussed at the end of this study. First, the concepts of the perceived severity of bullying and the frequency of school bullying cannot be interchanged. Researchers should not use the frequency of school bullying as an indicator of the seriousness of school bullying. Second, middle school students are more concerned about relational bullying, but teachers tend to focus more on physical bullying. Educators should pay more attention to the influence of relational bullying among students. Third, bullying incidents should be stopped at once, regardless of the power condition between the bullies and the victims, the intention of the bullies, and the behavioral results of bullying so that the potential harm on the victims is reduced.
|關鍵詞||校園霸凌、欺負、知覺嚴重性、頻率、frequency、perceived severity、school bullying、seriousness|