The Impact of Achievement Goal Manipulation on Achievement Goal Orientations, Academic Performance, and Learning Strategies: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies
Achievement goal theory was one of the hottest theories of achievement motivation. There have been extreme numbers of empirical studies regarding this theory. Hsu (2013) conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether students’ goal structure perception predicted their own learning behaviors. Following Hsu, this study examined the impact of achievement goal manipulations on achievement goal orientations, academic performance, and learning strategies. Inclusion criteria for meta-analytic samples were set, and the search of three research databases was conducted. Thirtytwo experimental articles were collected. Random effect model and 95% confidence interval were performed. Because only journal papers were included and the file drawer problem could exist, the findings in this study must be interpreted and generalized carefully. It was found that developing competence was emphasized the most in the mastery-approach manipulation, and that academic competition and outperforming others were highlighted the most in the performance-approach manipulation. Secondly, in comparison with other goal manipulations, the mastery-approach goal manipulation contributed to mastery-approach goal orientation, academic performance, and help-seeking. The participants in mastery-approach goal manipulation performed less performance-approach orientation. Third, the effect of goal manipulation in students’ goal orientation was the greatest among elementary school participants, not significant among high school pupils. In experimental studies, participants in the mastery-approach manipulation had greater academic performance than those in the performance-approach manipulation; in quasi-experimental ones, the reverse was found. The implications were discussed.
|關鍵詞||成就目標取向、成就目標操弄、後設分析、學習策略、學業表現、achievement goal orientation、achievement goal manipulation、meta-analysis、learning strategy、academic performance|