Prevalence Rates and Common Behaviors of School Bullying Among Taiwanese Elementary Students
以往校園霸凌研究多聚焦於中學生，且研究方式歧異而難與國際接軌，臺灣小學生的校園霸凌現況仍待能與國際一致的調查方式來進行探詢。本研究目的在探討國民小學校園霸凌現況，包括國民小學校園霸凌盛行率及常見的霸凌行為類別，以供制訂反霸凌政策及規劃校園霸凌防制方案之參考。研究對象是臺灣13個縣市、22所學校的高年級學童共1,816 位（M = 11.5 歲， SD = 0.84 ）， 包括953 位男生（52.5%）及861位女生（47.4%），以國際常用的Olweus式整體評估題來進行霸凌盛行率調查，並以修編的小學生校園霸凌量表來探究霸凌及受凌行為頻率排序。研究結果發現，校園霸凌盛行率（自陳霸凌、自陳受凌、旁觀霸凌、兼為霸凌／ 受凌） 分別是13.7% 、14.5%、37.2%、5.4%。校園霸凌盛行率不因性別、年級、家庭背景的不同而有差異，但隔代教養家庭下的學童涉入校園霸凌與受凌的比例，高於雙親及單親家庭學童，達低效果量（w = .11）。國小校園內最常見的霸凌行為，依序是罵難聽的話、惡意嘲笑、拳打腳踢、當眾說壞話、孤立等，最常發生的受凌行為依序是被罵難聽的話、被當眾說壞話、被惡意嘲笑、被破壞友誼、被拳打腳踢等。最常見的霸凌類別是言語霸凌，較少見的霸凌類別是網路霸凌。文末針對本研究的限制及校園霸凌調查方式進行討論及建議。
This study investigated the prevalence rates and common behaviors of school bullying among Taiwanese elementary students. The results may elucidate the circumstances of school bullying in Taiwan and provide crucial information for anti bullying policies and bullying prevention programs. Participants were 1,816 elementary school students (Mage = 11.5 years, SD = 0.84), including 953 boys (52.5%) and 861 girls (47.4%). Three Olweus-type global items were adopted to examine the prevalence rates of school bullying, and a revised version of the School Bullying Scales for Elementary students was employed to investigate common bullying and victimization behaviors. The results revealed that the prevalence rates were 13.7% for self-reported bullies, 14.5% for victims, 37.2% for bystanders, and 5.4% for bullies/victims. No differences were observed in the prevalence rates of bullying among various genders, grades, and races. Students raised by grandparents exhibited higher involvement in school bullying (w = .11) compared with those from single-parent and intact families. The most frequent bullying behaviors were cursing, deliberately laughing at others, hitting and kicking, publicly ridiculing others, and ostracization. The most frequent victimizing behaviors were being cursed, publicly ridiculed, being laughed at, friendships being breached, and being hit and kicked. The most and least frequent bullying categories were verbal bullying and cyberbullying, respectively. We further discuss the investigation of school bullying and provide suggestions for future research.
|關鍵詞||小學、行為頻率、校園霸凌、盛行率、欺負、elementary school student、frequency、school bullying、prevalence rate、bully|