A Design Framework for Enhancing Engagement in Student-centered Learning: Own it, Learn it, and Share it
Student-centered learning ( SCL) identifies students as the owners of their learning. As the name suggests， students assume increased autonomy and responsibility for their own learning. Often， students identify individual learning goals to pursue external goals. While SCL is increasingly discussed in K-12 and higher education， researchers and practitioners lack current and comprehensive framework to design， develop， and implement SCL. Previous design frameworks for learning and instruction have not adequately embodied the intersections of the key motivational， cognitive， social， and affective constructs afforded by emerging technologies. Particularly， existing frameworks typically failed to scaffold student autonomy. We examine the implications of theory and research-based evidence to inform those who seek clear guidelines to support students' engagement and autonomous learning. SCL is rooted in constructivist and constructionist as well as self-determination theories. Constructs of these theories have been studied respectively; however， the intersections among the three theories require further exploration. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework and practical guidelines to the researchers and practitioners who seek to enhance student engagement with SCL. First， we review chronological emergence of SCL and examine the characteristics of SCL. We identify autonomy， scaffolding， and audience as key constructs of SCL engagement. Then， we examine Self-Determination Theory and constructivist-and constructionist-inspired epistemologies and key constructs. We propose a design framework that encompasses motivational， cognitive， social， and affective aspects of learning : Own it， Learn it， and Share it. We present the OLSit model and research-based design guidelines to support instructors' and students' efforts to create autonomous learning climate and scaffold the process of developing an artifact for an authentic audience. It is recommended that students: ( a) develo p ownership over the process and achieve personally meaningful learning goals ; ( b) learn autonomously through metacognitive， procedural， conceptual， and strategic scaffolding; and ( c) generate artifacts aimed at authentic audiences beyond the classroom assessment. Furthermore， we suggest ten design guidelines under the framework. We examine previous research on autonomy， scaffolding， and audience and apply efforts to promote enhanced engagement by adapting these principles in the Own it， Learn it， and Share it ( OLSit) framework. As we support students to be fully engaged， we acknowledge and maximize the autonomy of students while providing appropriate scaffolding and capitalizing on emerging Web 2. Otechnologies.
|關鍵詞||生本学习、认知建构主义、心理建构主义、自我决定理论、自主学习、教学支架、student-centered learning、constructivism、constructionism、self-determination theory、autonomy、scaffolding|