Time Allocation for Learning after Class and the Rewards: Education Input-Output Interpretation
Based on individual-level survey information from PISA-Shanghai(2012)， the authors construct a pseudo-panel data to estimate the effect of instruction time on pupils’ time allocation for learning after class and the subsequent rewards under that arrangement by employing fixed effect estimation. Major findings are briefly summarized as below: time allocated to learning after class for 15-year-old students is positively associated with instruction time-length at school， longer hours taught in classroom reduces the probability of never learning outside of school， while for other levels of out-of-class effort， the probability of increasing hours allocated to subject-specific tasks follows a flat invert-U shape; controlling for instruction hours， students’ performance is significantly affected by hours studied after class， while learning time threshold effect is detected， effort below the critical-value is not that rewarding. The paper also finds that education system exerts persistent and non-unnoticeable effects on the pattern of students’ time-use and rate of return to hours spent on after-school study. Policy implications are indicated for institutional scheduling and individual time management.
|關鍵詞||课外学习时间、课堂教学时间、学业回报、learning time after class、instruction time、students’ performance|