影子教育是否扩大教育结果的不均等 ——基于PISA 2012上海数据的经验研究
Does Shadow Education Aggravate Inequality of Educational Outcomes? An Empirical Study on PISA 2012 Shanghai Data
The shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring has become quite common in East Asian countries nowadays. Based on the data of Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 (PISA 2012) ，the paper analyzes the influence of shadow education on the mathematical literacy of students of Shanghai by means of a hierarchical linear model，and estimates the net effect of shadow education using the method of reweighting on propensity score matching ( RPSM ). The study has found out ： first， supplementary math tutoring has a positive effect on the math score of students; second， supplementary math tutoring and supplementary science tutoring complement each other，while there is a crowing-out effect between language tutoring and math tutoring； and third， if the students from different SES family have equal opportunities of attending tutoring， supplementary math tutoring may narrow the gap of learning performance caused by the family SES differences， and thus improve the equality of educational outcomes. Therefore， governments and schools are advised to provide free supplementary tutoring for lower performing students from low-income families； tutoring organizations should be encouraged to establish after-school learning funds and/or incentive funds for students from poor families and grant fee remissions to those from ultra-low income families， so as to create a situation where the government， the school and the society jointly promote the equality of educational outcomes in the stage of compulsory education.