From School Education to Shadow Education: Education Competition and Social Reproduction
Continuous policy promotion of equalizing compulsory education in China has virtually driven the center of the education competition moving from the school education to the shadow education for students in different social classes. The social reproduction fiinction of the shadow education is increasingly apparent. This paper uses the data from China Family Panel Studies in 2012 ( CFPS 2012) ， which was carried out by the Institute of Social Science Survey of Peking University， to study the extracurricular tutoring activities in the compulsoiy education. The result shows that students from better socio-economic background families and in large and medium cities are more likely to receive the extracurricular tutoring ； students of better academic performance and from key schools are more likely to attend the extracurricular tutoring as well; extracurricular tutoring can enhance the performance in Math achievements， but not that in Chinese. This paper concludes that extracurricular tutoring activities in China has enlarged the resources and achievement gaps between students from different social classes，and shadow education has become an important channel of maintaining the intergenerational class gap. The social reproduction function of the shadow education has weakened the government's efforts to implement the fair policy of school education. It has become a threat to the equity of compulsory education. Faced with the challenges，the government should improve the quality of school education service， manage and control extracurricular tutoring activities properly， restrain the reinforcement by private tutoring on social stratification， and promote the development of the education function to span intergenerational effect.
|影子教育是否扩大教育结果的不均等 ——基于PISA 2012上海数据的经验研究|