學術倫理教育的國際趨勢與展望：以荷蘭The Dilemma Game與歐盟Path2Integrity為例
International Trends and Prospects of Academic Ethics Education: Take the Dilemma Game in the Netherlands and Path2Integrity in the EU as an Example
學術是為了提升人類科學與文明的進步，然而，國際與國內發生的種種學術倫理不當行為與違反事件，除了動搖人們對知識真相的信心，也讓學術蒙上塵埃。故而，透過國際上研究倫理與研究誠信的作為與趨勢，希望以他山之石的借鏡讓學術回復其正軌有其必要。因此，本文以二大國際計畫為例，其一是荷蘭EUR Taskforce Scientific Integrity計畫與旗下的The Dilemma Game作為臺灣學術倫理推廣之參考（已獲得正式授權翻譯中）。其次是歐盟Horizon 2020計畫在科學與社會（SwafS）項下的15個「研究倫理與研究誠信」專案，其中因為Path2Integrity計畫曾與臺灣學者合作，也在臺灣開設跨國訓練課程，所以特別提出來討論。臺灣近年來針對學術倫理已著手訂立正式法規與教育推廣制度，本文透過對於荷蘭The Dilemma Game與歐盟Path2Integrity為例的國際趨勢探究，了解到不論是基於學術不當事件的防止，或是基於創新、科學與社會的提升，均可以作為我國在研究誠信的規劃上新的思考與視野：應當珍視科學與研究成果的價值以及科研人員的成就，形成利他與自利的正向循環，讓真實的知識發現與技術成果從學術界轉移到實務界，達成研究者、機構、社會與國家競爭力的提升與永續。
The purpose of academic research is to advance the progress of human science and civilization. However, the various incidents of research misconduct and violations that have occurred both internationally and domestically have not only shaken people’s confidence in the truth of knowledge but also left academia in the dust. Therefore, it is necessary to look at the international trends in the practice of research integrity to bring academia back on the right track by borrowing from other countries. First, this research introduces the Dutch EUR Taskforce Scientific Integrity project and takes The Dilemma Game (which has now been authorized for translation) as a reference for promoting academic integrity in Taiwan. Second, this research presents information about the European Union Horizon 2020 program in “Science with and for Society” (SwafS). Among the SwafS, the Path2Integrity project has collaborated with Taiwanese scholars and has offered transcontinental training courses in Taiwan; this paper is particularly focusing on the project. In recent years, Taiwan has begun to establish formal regulations and mechanisms for promoting academic research ethics education. This study explores the international trends by taking The Dilemma Game in the Netherlands and Path2Integrity in the European Union as examples and learns that both the prevention of academic misconduct and the promotion of innovation, science, and society can serve as new thinking and vision for the research integrity education planning in Taiwan. We need to value science and research results and the achievements of researchers and cultivate a positive cycle of altruism and self-interest. Hence, the knowledge and technical discoveries from industrial practices and the findings from researchers may be transferred from the academic field to the practical world; this will ensure the competitiveness and sustainability of researchers, institutions, society, and the nation in the long run.
|關鍵詞||研究倫理、研究誠信、科學與社會、國際趨勢、學術不當行為、research ethics、research integrity、science with and for society、international trends、academic misconduct|