Reflective Thinking on Outcome-Based Education in Higher Education
Outcome-based education (OBE) originated from ideas of competency-based education， mastery learning and objectives that had become part of American educational practice since the 1950s. As far back as 1996， Biggs outlined the principles of constructive alignment after OBE's emerging into higher education area. The alignment aspect of constructive alignment refers to that the intended learning outcomes， teaching and learning activities， and assessment tasks are all aligned， whilst students construct meaning from what they do to learn. However， the basic epistemology of alignment and structuralism which set up their ideas over pragmatism and rationalism respectively seem different. Thus， the Beliefs of Knowledge and Knowing stemmed from the two epistemology concepts are also not alike. Therefore， the further development of OBE in higher learning area needs to give consideration to the two epistemology concepts and to train reflective thinking and integrated thinking taking intended learning outcomes as reference to enhance student′s ability of innovation.
|關鍵詞||成果为本教育、一致性建构、理性主义、实用主义、知识论、Outcome-Based Education、Constructive Alignment、Rationalism、Pragmatism、Epistemology|