性别角色和主观幸福感的关系模型:基于中国大学生的检验,ERICDATA高等教育知識庫
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篇名
性别角色和主观幸福感的关系模型:基于中国大学生的检验
並列篇名
The Relationship between Sex-role and Subjective Well-being in China
作者 蔡华俭黄玄凤宋海荣
中文摘要
在西方文化下,关于理想的性别角色类型主要存在三种观点:一致性模型、双性化模型、男性化模型。按照一致性模型,具有男性化特质的男性和具有女性化特质的女性是最为理想的;按照双性化模型,在男性化特质和女性化特质两个维度上得分都高的个体社会适应性最强而且心理最健康;按照男性化模型,男性化特质才是心理健康和社会适应的主要决定因素。研究运用大样本的网络数据,探讨在中国文化下,上述三个模型在中国的适用性,具体地,在性别角色类型和主观幸福感的关系上的适用性。结果发现:双性化模型得到支持,同时具有男性化特质和女性化特质的个体主观幸福感最高;男性化模型和一致性模型都没有得到支持。这表明在当代西方文化下的理想模型——男性化模型并不适用于中国,理想的性别角色模型具有文化特异性。这一结果不仅增进和丰富了人们对文化对心理和行为的影响的认识,还对我国目前青少年良好个性品质的塑造和培养以及心理健康教育的实践具有重要指导作用。
英文摘要
Since the development of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) in 1974, numerous studies have been devoted to sex role. Among these studies, the relation of sex-role to psychological well-being has received the most attention. To date, three theories regarding the utility of sex-roles have been proposed: the congruency model, the androgyny model, and the masculinity model. The congruency model posits that masculinity facilitates male’s mental health but not female’s while femininity facilitates female’s well-being but not male’s. Androgyny model states that people with high levels of both masculinity and femininity enjoy the highest level of well-being independent of their gender. Masculinity model holds that masculinity is the dominant factor that promotes one’s psychological well-being. Since most related studies have been done in individualistic cultures, the present study aims to test the generality of the findings in a collectivistic culture, China, by examining the relation of sex-role to subjective well-being.Sex-role was measured by a Chinese version of the BSRI(for masculine subscale, =0.86; for feminine subscale, =0.82); Subjective Well-Being was measured by scale developed by Diener and his colleagues (1985)(for the Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS), =0.85; for the Positive Affections and Negative Affections Scale(PANAS), =0.85). Both scales were rated on a 7-point likert scale. A total of 1242 college students completed the above mentioned two scales online among which 394 were male and 848 were female. The age of the sample ranged from 17 to 25 with a mean of 20.88 (SD=1.46).Chinese college students scored higher on feminine scale than on masculine scale, confirming the collectivistic characteristics of Chinese culture. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with sex, masculinity and femininity as predictors and SWL and PANAS as criteria, respectively. Results demonstrated that the main effects of sex, masculinity and femininity were significant, but none of the interactions were significant. This suggests that the addictive androgyny model is most appropriate in explaining the relation of sex-role to subjective well-being in Chinese culture. Currently, the traditional congruency model is not applicable to neither Western nor Eastern cultures. However, a masculine sex role is ideal in western world while androgyny is ideal in China, suggesting differences exist across cultures in ideal sex-role type. The study also suggests that findings of sex role related research based on a western sample should not be assumed to generalize to other cultures without further examination.
起訖頁 474-486
關鍵詞 集体主义个人主义中国性别角色主观幸福感双性化Chinaandrogynyfemininemasculinesex role
刊名 心理學報  
期數 200804 (40:4期)
出版單位 中國科學院心理研究所;中國心理學會
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