The Role of Genuine Intimacy in the Lover-Reference Effect
Experiments involving the self-reference effect paradigm have yielded inconsistent results on the question of whether an individual’s self-construal includes intimate others. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genuine intimacy plays a role in the lover-reference effect， and to explore the influences of assumed intimacy and gender on the lover-reference effect. We hypothesized that the lover-reference effect would be apparent in the participants’ R (Remember) scores but not in their K (Know) scores.The study included 68 participants currently involved in romantic relationships (33 females， 35 males; age M = 22.5 years， range 19–28 years; length of relationship M = 14.89 months， range 0.5–54 months). A 4 (orienting tasks: self， lover， LuXun， semantic) × 2 (genuine intimacy: high， low) × 2 (assumed intimacy: high， low) × 2 (gender: male， female) mixed design was used. The procedure consisted of three parts. Part one involved four orienting tasks. During each task， participants were asked to provide Yes/No judgments about reference objects， using the trait-adjective word displayed on a computer screen. Part two comprised a surprise recognition test including R/K judgments. In part three， participants were asked to complete the Genuine Intimacy Scale and Assumed Intimacy Scale.A repeated measure MANOVA on the R scores revealed a significant interaction between genuine intimacy and orienting tasks， such that the group with a high degree of genuine intimacy showed a lover-reference effect， while that with a low degree of genuine intimacy did not: F (3， 102) = 2.71， p < 0.05， η2 = 0.07. A significant interaction was also found between gender and orienting tasks， such that females showed a lover-reference effect and males did not: F (3， 102) = 5.82， p < 0.01， η2 = 0.15. There was no significant interaction between assumed intimacy and referential condition: F (3， 102) = 1.89， p > 0.05， η2 = 0.05. The K scores revealed no significant results.These results support the hypothesis that the lover-reference effect is influenced by genuine intimacy， and that there is a gender difference in the lover-reference effect. The lover-reference effect was only reflected in the participants’ R scores and was not significantly influenced by assumed intimacy.Based on these results， the authors suggest that future research related to the inclusion of intimate others in an individual’s self-construal should consider genuine intimacy and gender.
|關鍵詞||自我构念、应有亲密度、实际亲密度、恋人参照效应、自我参照效应、assumed intimacy、genuine intimacy、self-construal、lover-reference effect、self-reference effect|