A Transnational Study on the Relationships among the Education, Social Development, Health, Gender Equality and Economic Development
人力資本對於經濟發展具有重要影響。然而，人力資本包括教育、健康、訓練與移民等，現有研究以教育為人力資本對經濟發展的影響為主，忽略以健康為內涵的人力資本進行探究。各國國民健康與經濟發展的關聯，以及各國的社會發展、性別平等與經濟發展的關係為何？為瞭解上述問題，本研究蒐集2019年世界銀行發布的108個國家資料，探討教育（以教育年數為替代變項）、社會（以失業率、都市化程度為替代變項）、健康（以預期壽命、健康經費占國民生產毛額比率為替代變項）、性別平等（以女性在國會席次比率為替代變項）與經濟發展（以國民所得為替代變項）的關聯性，並獲得以下結論：一、各國的預期壽命對國民所得為正向顯著影響，解釋力為59.5%，在六個因素中最為重要。二、各國的教育年數、失業率、都市化程度、健康經費占國民生產毛額比率及女性在國會席次比率對國民所得的解釋力，在控制預期壽命之後，僅在1.4%～6.2%之間， 其中， 教育年數的解釋力僅有6.2%， 比起預期壽命的解釋力少53.3%。三、臺灣的預期壽命、教育年數、健康經費占國民生產毛額比率、都市化程度、女性在國會席次比率在各國國民所得條件下都高於世界平均水準，失業率則低於世界平均水準。
Human capital had an important influence on economic development. However, human capital included education, health, training and immigration, etc.. Existing research focused on the impact of education as human capital on economic development, and ignored human capital with health as its connotation. However, what was the relationship between national health and economic development in countries, as well as the relationship between social development and gender equality and economic development in countries? In order to understand the above problems, this study collected data from 108 countries released by the World Bank in 2019 and explored education (using the number of years as a substitute variable), society (using the unemployment rate, degree of urbanization as a substitute variable), health (using the life expectancy, health expenditures as a percentage of gross national product as a substitute variable), and the relationship between gender equality (using the ratio of women in congress as a substitute variable) and the economic development (using the national income as a substitute variable). The results were as follows: 1. The life expectancy had a positive impact on per capital income, that can account for 59.5% of per capital income, and it was the most important among the six factors. 2. The explanatory power of the years of education, degree of urbanization, unemployment rate, health expenditure on gross national production ratio contributed to per capital income was only between 1.4% to 6.2% after controlling life expectancy. Among them, the year of education only accounted for per capital income of 6.2%, and the explanatory power was 53.3% less than the life expectancy. 3. Taiwan’s life expectancy, the years of education, ratio of health expenditure to gross national product, degree of urbanization and the percentage of women in congress were all higher than the world average under the conditions of national income, while the unemployment rate was lower than the world’s average.
|關鍵詞||失業率、都市化程度、教育年數、健康經費占國民生產毛額比率、預期壽命、unemployment rate、degree of urbanization、years of education、health expenditure as a percentage of gross national product、life expectancy|