Review of Playfulness Research: 1965-2017
This study aims to systematically comment on the development of playfulness research. The research object is based on 26 research articles collected by the National Tsinghua University Resource Exploration System from 1965 to 2017. Among them, 10 are western research and 16 are oriental studies. Data analysis focuses on the definition of playfulness research, the development of connotation, and the differences between Eastern and Western cultures. There are four important findings in this study: First, early playful research focused on the body’s spontaneity, social spontaneity, cognitive spontaneity, pleasure, and sense of humor. Even most modern studies still make changes based on this research, and some studies describe the level of play with personal traits. Other studies suggest that the environment and atmosphere are highly correlated with playfulness. Secondly, the connotation of playfulness research mostly emphasizes the six levels of spontaneity, explicit pleasure, humor, and childlike innocence, breaking through the old and trying new things and solving problems. Furthermore, this study found that the early stage of playfulness research is divided into two parts: adult and child. The biggest difference between children’s playfulness and adult playfulness is the purpose of unconscious behavior. It was until the modern times that group playfulness was separated from individual research, so it was possible to study children’s playfulness, adult playfulness and organizational playfulness. Finally, the differences between the East and the West in the study of playfulness, the western adult play is biased towards no purpose or no reason, the east believes that the emergence of play is able to actively achieve goals or solve problems.
|關鍵詞||成人玩興、玩興、玩興量表、孩童玩興、組織玩興氣氛、adult playfulness、playfulness、playfulness scale、children playfulness、organizational playfulness climate|