A New Perspective across the Century: Further Study on Two Types of Japanese Christians in the Tamed Imperial Ideology of the Meiji Era
During the Meiji Period, imperial ideology overshadowed and penetrated various aspects of thought. However, the overall picture and framework of the ideological operation launched by Christians has not been discussed completely. Thus, the author conducted a preliminary study on tamed imperial ideology, targeting Matsumura Kaiseki from an individual missionary group. Subsequently, the author discusses Uchimura Kanzo and Nitobe Inazo from the Sapporo Band, focusing on religion, Shinto, and the Imperial House. The results obtained were as follows: although Kanzo and Inazo avoided directly criticizing Shinto, Kanzo indirectly did so through an inside / outside dichotomy, whereas Inazo recognized the inherent “Saisei Icchi” theory (the union of religious and political rule) of Shinto; both presented the “Arahitogami” (Living God) in an indirect and roundabout manner. Furthermore, Kanzo’s discussion examined the distance between God and Man, whereas Inazo tacitly acknowledged the practice of Man as God. Regarding the discussion of their own relationship with Shinto, Kanzo used an inside / outside dichotomy to distinguish an individual’s own religion from those of others, whereas Inazo denied the religious significance of national Shinto rituals through the double definition of Shinto. The differences were highlighted by presenting the so-called tamed imperial ideology, which is a vital fact overlooked in relevant studies.
|關鍵詞||內村鑑三、神道、國家意識形態、基督教、新渡戶稻造、Uchimura Kanzo、Shinto、imperial ideology、Christianity、Nitobe Inazo|