高等教育出版
熱門: 吳清山  吳勁甫  丘愛鈴  文化領導  三角關係  九年一貫課程  
高等教育出版
首頁 臺灣期刊   學校系所   學協會   民間出版   大陸/海外期刊   政府機關   學校系所   學協會   民間出版   DOI註冊服務
閱讀全文  購買本期
篇名
腦中的自由意志?對來自認知神經科學之實徵證據的擷選回顧   免費試閱
並列篇名
Free Will in the Brain? A Selective Review of the Empirical Evidence From Cognitive Neuroscience
作者 吳嫻
中文摘要
普羅大眾相信人類有自由意志,但透過測量大腦活動來了解人類功能和機制的認知神經科學研究顯示,在受試者任意進行抬手、自由決定以哪隻手按鍵或進行加法或減法運算時,先觀察到和後續行為相關之生理訊號,接著受試者才意識到其動作意圖,最後觀察到受試者之外顯行為;此種結果似乎強烈挑戰自由意志的存在。本文介紹相關研究之數個經典實驗,指出其實驗假設的內部矛盾、其實驗派典的潛在問題和侷限,並澄清其結果的意涵,再進一步根據人類記憶等其他認知範疇中的行為表現,提出「自由意志的運作並非單一歷程,包含難以意識到的內隱意志和可清楚意識到的外顯意志」。本文根據對科學實徵證據的擷選回顧,闡述即使我們相信人類所有認知功能(包括自由意志)都奠基於神經元活動,目前的腦科學研究仍尚未提供自由意志如何運作的直接證據,也未推翻自由意志的存在。
英文摘要
It is generally believed that people have free will, according to which we can freely choose and control our own behaviors. However, such belief is strongly challenged by empirical evidence from cognitive neuroscience, which investigates human cognitive functions and their neuronal mechanisms through measuring brain activities. Specifically, research has shown that when people spontaneously move their hands, freely choose to move their right or left hand, or freely decide to perform addition or subtraction, the neuronal signals that are relevant to the following behaviors are first observed, followed by participants’ subjective awareness of the intention to act, and then the explicit behaviors are observed. Such findings seem to be directly against the existence of free will. To better understand functional and neural mechanisms of free will in the brain, several classic studies addressing this issue via cognitive neuroscience methods are reviewed in the present article. The theoretical assumptions, experimental procedures, and behavioral and neuroimaging results of these experiments are introduced. The results and their implications are described and discussed. Critically, the inconsistency of the underlying assumptions, the problems of the paradigms, and the limitations of the findings of these experiments are highlighted and elaborated. It is further proposed that, similar to behaviors in other cognitive domains such as memory, the functioning of free will may not be a unitary process but encompassing the implicit phase that is unaware of and the explicit phase that is clearly aware of by an agent. Based on the selective review of the studies in cognitive neuroscience, it is concluded that despite the belief that all human behaviors are supported by neural activities in the brain, the present evidence has not elucidated the operations of free will in the brain, nor has it overthrown the existence of free will of human beings.
起訖頁 001-027
關鍵詞 主觀意識自我控制腦電波研究準備電位功能性核磁共振造影subjective consciousnessself controlelectrophysiological researchreadiness potentialsfunctional magnetic resonance imaging
刊名 生命教育研究  
期數 201812 (10:2期)
出版單位 國立臺灣大學生命教育研發育成中心;社團法人台灣生命教育學會
DOI 10.3966/207466012018121002001  複製DOI
QR Code
該期刊
下一篇
腦科學反駁了自由意志嗎?

高等教育知識庫  閱讀計畫  教育研究月刊  新書優惠  

教師服務
合作出版
期刊徵稿
聯絡高教
高教FB
讀者服務
圖書目錄
教育期刊
訂購服務
活動訊息
數位服務
高等教育知識庫
國際資料庫收錄
投審稿系統
DOI註冊
線上購買
高點網路書店 
元照網路書店
博客來網路書店
教育資源
教育網站
國際教育網站
關於高教
高教簡介
出版授權
合作單位
知識達 知識達 知識達 知識達 知識達 知識達
版權所有‧轉載必究 Copyright2011 高等教育文化事業有限公司  All Rights Reserved
服務信箱:edubook@edubook.com.tw 台北市館前路 26 號 6 樓 Tel:+886-2-23885899 Fax:+886-2-23892500