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篇名
十二年國教政策形成研究:多元流程觀點
並列篇名
A Study on Policy Formation of 12-Year Basic Education: A Multiple Streams Perspective
作者 鄭永志
中文摘要
十二年國教政策自1982年開始出現,1989年教育部開始積極研議。從發展技職為主的延長國民教育的規劃,歷經發展完全中學、綜合高中的方案、高中職社區化乃至高中優質化輔助方案等,先驅計畫未曾間斷,經過20餘年的政策發展。但是到最近一次2011年馬前總統宣布2014正式實施,民眾對於政策內容一開始是無所悉,進程充滿爭議,最後以執政者意志優勢主導強行上路。究竟長期發展的過程中出現甚麼問題,導致政策與民意間產生明顯的間隙?本研究主要以Kingdon的多元流程模型理論,使用內容分析法針對1982~2014年十二年國教正式實施期間採取歷史發展為研究途徑,檢視剖析發展過程的形成與變遷的因素。研究結果顯示政策發展共歷經1989、2007與2011年三次政策窗開啟。政策備選方案除在政策窗開啟後引發社會上的短延時討論外,並未發現有長期在政策原湯醞釀的過程。2014年最後實施方案,是以教育部長身兼政策企業家身分,幾乎不具妥協空間的優勢強力主導,而非循專業官僚及先驅政策發展所規劃。這些未如理論中應齊備的要素,皆為政策實施招致民怨及爭議不斷的原因,因此未來教育政策的制定應注意尊重專業官僚的規劃,並且重視政策備選方案在政策原湯進行激盪凝聚共識的必要過程。
英文摘要
“12-Year Basic Education Policy” issue was appeared in 1982. The Ministry of Education commenced deliberate planning since 1989, the vocational Programs, complete high schools policy, comprehensive high schools policy, senior high school community policy to high school actualization program included. After more than 20 years’ movement, former president Ma announced in 2011 that the policy would implement since 2014. The general public did not clearly understand the policy contents, so the process was full of disputes and the policy was implemented by administration reign. What were the reasons of the policy still being ambiguous after long-term evolution? The Study is based on Kingdon’s theory and adopt the historical approach to retrieve the policy development. The method used for data collection, e-newspaper, theses, dissertations and official documents from 1982 to 2014, is document analysis. The theoretical analysis of problem streams, political streams, policy streams, policy windows, and policy entrepreneurs are carefully illustrated. According to the results, totally there were three times of policy window triggered opening in the politics stream in 1989, 2007 and 2011. In the policy stream and the policy primeval soup, there were few specific alternatives and inter-correlations among policy communities when the policy window opening. At the implement stage, the Minister of Education, also as policy entrepreneur, dominated the policy with little compromise. The former related projects and planning of policy made by professional bureaucracy were with little function. The study conclude two suggestions: first, the government officials should respect to the professional bureaucracy as the references when planning public policy. Second, it will put a premium on the maturity of policy that the alternatives should be brainstormed by policy communities at the appropriate time of the evolution of policy.
起訖頁 095-132
關鍵詞 十二年國教政策政策窗政策企業家12-Year Basic Education PolicyPolicy WindowPolicy Entrepreneur
刊名 國立屏東大學學報:人文社會類  
期數 201608 (1期)
DOI 10.3966/251888792016080001004  複製DOI
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