以Erik H. Eriksion的生命週期理論來看華德福社會學習課程之質性研究―以海聲華德福十年級為例
A Qualitative Inquiry of Steiner’s Social Curriculum through Erikson’s Theory of Life Cycle: An Example of Ten-grade Students in Hai-Siann Waldorf School
本研究以E. H. Erikson的生命週期論來看華德福社會學習課程之質性研究，以海聲十年級為例。研究目的是想探問華德福十年級社會學習課程的意涵與目的，它對孩子的發展任務與課程之間的關係，為什麼是十年級？為什麼是選擇去尼泊爾？為什麼不是臺灣或任何一個地方？並想以一個課程規劃者也是實踐的行動者，省思這個行動的因果和影響。研究方法是以質性研究的省思：透過詩歌、透過作者與孩子的工作日誌敘說，來記錄旅程的脈絡與蛻變。除了省思華德福的教育理論外，並以Erikson的理論作為定位系統，讓敘說與理論交互思辯，時間跨兩年（2014～2015年）。
Based on Erikson’s theory of life cycle, the present study exams the social curriculum in Hai-Siann Waldorf School. The purpose of the study was to explore the meaning and the aim of social curriculum of grade 10 at this school, the relation between social curriculum and the developmental task of children at this age, and reasons why 10th graders were chosen to make a journey to Nepal instead of any place in Taiwan to do social service. As a planner and practitioner, I also reflected on the possible cause and effect as well as the impact of this journey.
Using a qualitative approach, poems, music, work logs of the author and children, and courses and transformations of the journey were recorded and reflected. The study lasted 2 years from 2014 to 2015. It examined theories of Waldorf Education, and used Erikson’s theory as a guideline to reflect on narrative and theory.
We found that our 10th graders (around 16 years of age) were experiencing a profound developmental process of psychological and social identity and making great effort to find out “who am I?” and “Shall I go forward with my dream?” Our experience in Nepal and the result of reflection on reality and ideal, both supported Erikson’s theory on Stage 5 development.
There were important transformations for the 10th graders in Hai-Siann: through a journey to Nepal, they learned to face themselves, integrated themselves, and gradually discovered that there was a position for each of them and for the whole.
|關鍵詞||生命週期論、華德福教育、社會學習、Theory of life cycle、Waldorf Education、social learning|