Research on the Prosocial Behavior of Junior High School Students under the Service Learning Policy of 12-year Compulsory Education: Example from Tainan City
教育部將服務學習納入十二年國教免試升學採計項目，希望學生從服務中學習服務的熱誠及技巧，培養學生利社會行為。研究者身為第一線教育人員，卻常發現學生在面對老師的請求時，常脫口而出「有沒有服務學習時數？」、「這樣可以得到多少服務學習時數？」等，甚至有學生認為服務學習時數滿了就不需要服務了。諸多服務學習產生的疑義讓研究者欲了解服務學習政策是否能培養國中學生的利社會行為。本研究將利社會行為分成「合群層面」、「關懷層面」及「幫助層面」，研究結果顯示學生整體的利社會行為屬於中上程度(M = 3.36)，學生在利社會行為層面中最高者為合群層面(M = 3.76)，次高者為幫助層面(M = 3.17)，最低者為關懷層面(M = 3.16)。不同年級、性別、宗教、出生序及是否參加服務性社團的學生在利社會行為都有顯著差異，但已進行服務學習時數不同的學生在利社會行為皆無顯著差異。研究也顯示學生的服務學習類型多屬於「學校服務類型」，非民間社福機構；服務學習較無課程的規劃。本研究也建議服務學習當作升學依據，應該當作門檻而不是絕對分數的計算。另外，各村里辦公室、政府部門廣召服務志工進行打掃，核予服務時數，反而讓社福團體無法受到幫助，若要學生體認服務學習的重要，應該協助學生去認識社會福利機構、幫助弱勢團體，培養學生的利社會行為。
Service learning is service that emphasizes both serving and learning, which the Ministry of Education has included as one of the measurement items in the admission process in the hope that students will develop the willingness to help and serve, as well as acquire service skills. It also aims to enhance the development of prosocial behavior among students. However, as a frontline educator, the researcher finds that students, when asked for help by teachers, often retort Does it count towards my service learning hours?, How many service learning hours do I get? etc. Some students even feel it is unnecessary to offer any help after they have reached the required number of service learning hours. The many doubts arising from service learning have prompted the researcher to explore whether or not the service learning policy can develop prosocial behavior among Junior High School students. Prosocial behavior for this research is at an upper intermediate level (M = 3.36). Among the three aspects of teamwork, care and help, teamwork scored the highest (M = 3.76), followed by help (M = 3.17), with care being the lowest (M = 3.16). If it must be a central basis for admission, making some service a prerequisite for admission, rather than insisting on a specific number of hours, would reduce student burden and prevent service education from becoming such a formality. While service education may be promoted as a means of assisting a greater number of underprivileged groups, social welfare organizations may not receive necessary help because of village office and government department use of student volunteer hours for cleaning and publicity activities. Therefore, if we want students to learn the importance of service education, and cultivate social concern in them, we must give consideration to various aspects of this policy. Students should not merely put in their service hours. Rather, we should allow them to become familiar with social service organizations, and assist underprivileged groups in order to teach them prosocial behavior.
|關鍵詞||十二年國教、服務學習、利社會行為、12-year compulsory education、service learning、prosocial behavior|