The Changing Face of Employment Patterns and Employment Risk After Higher Education Expansion and Financial Crisis
鑑於高等教育擴張和全球金融危機對勞動市場中的勞動條件和勞動結果產生明顯的影響，本研究使用2006、2008和2010年的「東亞社會調查」（East Asian Social Survey, EASS），比較2008年前後的就業型態變化，同時也檢視該時期和世代的效果來探討高等教育擴張和金融危機對就業風險重分配的影響。本研究發現，2007年底的全球金融危機並未明顯使得我國的就業型態轉向在職貧窮和全時低收的新貧工作型態，反而是在2008年之後，就業型態有明顯朝低工時發展的趨勢。高等教育擴張使得1967∼1976年和1977年出生的世代成為在職貧窮者的機率提高。高教育程度者具有較低的機率從事低工時且低收入的就業型態，但並未發現教育程度相對較低者有較高的機率會落入新貧的就業型態。然而，在面對勞動市場變遷時，勞動工人在承受就業風險的劣勢是非常明顯的。
The prevalence of higher education and the global financial crisis have had a significant influence on the labour conditions and labour productivity in the labour market. This study uses the East Asian Social Survey (EASS) conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2010, to compare the changes in the employment patterns before and after 2008. It also examines the effects of higher education and this crisis on the redistribution of unemployment risks in terms of period and cohort effects. This study finds that the global financial crisis that commenced in late 2007 was not the main reason that the employment patterns in Taiwan shifted towards “new poverty”, which is characterized by working poor and low-paying full-time jobs. It was not until after 2008 that there was a significant shift in employment patterns towards “lowpaying jobs with short working hours”. The prevalence of higher education implies that those who were born between 1967-1976 and 1977 had higher risks of becoming the working poor. On the other hand, the better educated have a lower chance of getting low-paying jobs with short working hours. However, there is no evidence that the less educated have a higher chance of falling into the “new poverty” category. Nevertheless, it is clear that manual workers bear a much higher risk of unemployment in a volatile labour market.
|關鍵詞||在職貧窮、非典型就業、高等教育擴張、就業風險、新貧、working poor、atypical employment、higher education expansion、employment risk、new poverty|