Paulo Freire 意識覺醒歷程觀的回應—發展學生批判意識的教學方法
A Response to the Perspective of Paulo Freire’s Process of Conscientização: Teaching Methods for Developing Students’ Critical Consciousness
意識覺醒（conscientização）是Paulo Freire（1921-1997）教育理論的核心觀點，欲瞭解Freire 的意識覺醒理念，有必要分析意識覺醒的歷程。然意識覺醒與壓迫二者關係密切，故欲分析意識覺醒歷程前必先瞭解Freire 對壓迫關係的分析，方能契入「壓迫」的真正意涵。Freire 對「壓迫」關係的分析，源自G. W. F. Hegel 意識辯證論與K. Marx 壓迫論的啟示。準此，本文透過哲學的文獻分析與理論詮釋的方式，首先探源Freire 分析壓迫關係的源頭；其次，分析Freire 意識覺醒歷程觀，冀盼以此探思為基礎回應發展學生批判意識的教學方法。探思之後，這些教學方法分別為：(1)引導學生意識到我自身是自由的；(2)引導學生意識到意識形態神話的本質；(3)教師必須體認學生是具有意識的個體；(4)師生皆為教學活動的認知主體；(5)教師實踐提問與對話的教學；(6)誘發學生產生反省與行動結合的批判意識。
The idea of conscientização is the core concept in Paulo Freire’s theory of education, and in order to understand the idea of conscientização, its process must be first explored. As there is a close relationship between conscientização and oppression, this study explores the analysis of oppression from Freire’s perspective to better understand conscientização. Freire’s analysis of oppression is based on Hegel’s “dialectic of the lord and bondsman” and Marx’s “analysis of oppression.” For this reason, philosophical literature analysis and theoretical hermeneutics analysis are used. This study first analyzes the origin of Freire’s analysis of oppression and it next analyzes the process of conscientização. Based on this exploration, teaching methods for developing students’ critical consciousness are identified as follows: (1) guide students in the realization of individual freedom, (2) guide students to realize the nature of the ideological myth, (3) recognize that students are individuals with consciousness, (4) understand that teachers and students are all cognitive subjects in teaching activities, (5) teach through problem-posing and dialogue, and (6) develop students’ critical consciousness with a combination of reflection and action.
|關鍵詞||批判意識、神奇意識、素樸意識、意識覺醒、Paulo Freire、conscientização、critical consciousness、magical consciousness、naive consciousness、Paulo Freire|