Impact of Folk Literature on “Rescriptor-in-waiting Bao Thrice Investigates the Butterfly Dream”–A Study Focusing on Subject Matter and Three-fold Structure
關漢卿是我國偉大的劇作家，了解群眾生活與民間文學趣味，故能從民間文學吸收養分進行創作。本文從本事題材、藝術手法與情節等方面，探討民間文學對關漢卿《蝴蝶夢》之影響，《蝴蝶夢》以魯義姑棄子全侄事及〈齊義繼母〉為本事題材，這兩則故事吸收《民間故事類型索引》985A類型的「保全他人之子」母題而來，主要彰顯王婆自我犧牲的大愛精神。藝術手法方面，關漢卿運用民間文學常見的「三疊式」結構，鋪陳官員審案斷獄過程，呈現出包拯的觀察入微，及王婆「捨子救人」的衝突與掙扎；在設定角色人物時，王婆的「三個」兒子也受到民間文學角色數目定型化影響，面對審案官員的訊問，三個兒子都用相同或相似的語句爭相認罪，這種重複述說事件的模式，類似於民間文學的三疊式技巧，除了能增加複沓美感外，更有助於強調情節與提醒觀眾，使劇情發展更為明確。關漢卿善於吸民間文學的藝術特色與技巧，但他並非全然複製民間文學，其創作能根植於元代社會，真實反映出律法制度的不公與權貴惡行。因此，關漢卿對民間文學既有所承繼，善於吸收民間故事技巧，亦有所創新，能融入當代社會背景，表達廣大群眾的生活願望與思維。 Guan Hanqing was the greatest playwright in Taiwan. Because he could understand the interest of public life and folk literature, he was able to absorb the nutrition in folk literature to engage in playwriting. This study investigated the impact of folk literature on Guan Hanqing's–Butterfly Dream from various aspects, such as subject matter, artistic techniques, and plots. The subject matter of–Butterfly Dream is affected by two stories:–a countrywoman in Lu State who sacrificed her own son to save her nephew and–a stepmother in Qi State who sacrificed her own son to save her stepson, and mainly reflects Aunt Wang's spirit of self-sacrifice. These two folk stories are classified into the Folk Story Type Index 985A,–a mother protecting other people's child. In terms of artistic techniques, Guan Hanqing used the common–three-fold stricture in folk literature to elaborate how the rescriptor-in-waiting judged the case and imposed sentences, reflecting the Zheng Bao's careful observation and Aunt Wang's conflict and struggle over–sacrificing her own son to save another person. The character setting of Aunt Wang's–3 sons is also affected by the fixed number of characters in folk literature. During the interrogation by rescriptor-in-waiting, all three sons confessed to the crime using the same or similar descriptions. Such a model of repeated description of an event is similar to the three-fold skill in folk literature, which increases the complexity and aesthetics, helps strengthen plots and remind audiences, and creates more specific plot development. Guan Hanqing was good at absorbing the artistic characteristics and skills in folk literature. However, he did not fully replicate folk literature. His works are rooted in the society in the Yuan Dynasty and truly reflect the injustice and sin of people with power under the legal system at the time. Therefore, Guan Hanqing helped pass down folk literature, was good at absorbing and innovating folk story skills, and integrated his works with the social background at the time to express the hopes and ideas of the general public in their life.
|關鍵詞||元雜劇、關漢卿、民間文學、蝴蝶夢、三疊式、Yuan Drama、Guan Hanqing、Folk Literature、Butterfly Dream、3-fold Structure|