Principal Research Paradigms of Content Analysis Method for Online Learning
Online learning is one of the most important learning forms for today^s learners. How to know its effectiveness and efficiency of online learning has become the main topic of online learning analysis. The content analysis method is one of the basic online learning analysis methods， and it is important to review the literature for its research paradigm and practical methodology. Based on the paradigm theory of Thomas S. Kuhn，through the analysis of the basic elements of the paradigms of the works included the 116 literature， which involves research community， incommensurability ，academic leaders and expansibility， content analysis methods of online learning can be divided into five basic research paradigms ， including learning process ， deep learning， knowledge construction， learning result and evaluation of content analysis method. The content analysis paradigm oriented to the learning process has been pioneered by Henri， who became the academic leader of the paradigm. The academic community is represented by Zhu， Ertmer， Lin，who focus on the learning process. In the content analysis paradigm of deep learning， Newman targets content analysis to learners' advanced thinking ability，such as critical thinking，deep learning，online interaction and so on. Taking Newman as an academic leader， the community of the deep learning includes Bullen， Ke Fengfeng and so on. In the content analysis paradigm oriented to knowledge construction， Gunawardena targeted the goal of content analysis to learners， knowledge construction process， and constructed a knowledge construction interaction analysis model which has been continuously modified and developed by Hull， Yap，Fischer and Weinberger. Garrison is the academic leader of the content analysis paradigm of learning outcomes， who has clearly put forward to establish the relation between online learning sessions and learning results through the analysis of social presence， cognitive presence and teaching existence. Garrison's team members include Wang Ping^ an and others. Evaluation of content analysis method mainly includes reliability and validity of analyzing indicators， analysis units and specific procedures for analysis. The theoretical basis， expert evaluation and consistency test are the basic guarantees of reliability and validity; The analytical units cover articles，messages，paragraphs，sentences， words or phrases，characters，or a video; The analytical processes consist of defining analytical units，dividing data，checking for consistency，and negotiating disputes. The study implies that the choice of research paradigms or methods is determined by research questions and their revision or creation should be based on problems and theories. The granularity of the division of the analysis unit should take fall account of the information characteristics.
|關鍵詞||在线学习、内容分析法、研究范式、学习分析、online learnings content analysis method、research paradigm、learning analysis、CSSCI|