Key Issues in Developing Modern Apprenticeshij) in China’s Vocational Education
In China ， modern apprenticeship is highlighted in current vocational education reform and de- velopment. This reform involves three levels ， namely learning methods ， vocational training model and vocational education system. In order to promote the successful construction of modem apprenticeship in China， five key issues should be made clear： what is modem apprenticeship? What is the purpose of developing modem apprenticeship and what kind of modem apprenticeship should be developed? What are the main barriers to developing moder apprenticeship? What are the supporting conditions of modern apprenticeship? In the development of modern apprenticeship， it’s necessary to capture the substantive problems and develop proper strategies in terms of the five issues. The connotation of modern apprenticeship includes four aspects: a) it is a learning style of technical competence based on stable mentor-apprentice relationship ； b) it is apprenticeship of modern industry and service industry; c) it is one part of modern occupation education ； d) it is an open system of technical skills training. In many countries the purpose of developing modern apprenticeship is to solve the problem of high youth unemployment， while in China， the more important purpose is to cultivate skilled workers who can adapt to the emerging industry. Therefore ， the moder apprenticeship system in China should develop at several levels to meet the needs of different policies. However ， the development of modern apprentice system in China faces a critical institutional obstacle， that is ， the economic operation mode is too inclined to free market. In the current system environment ， the key to the development of moder apprenticeship is how to reconstruct mentor-apprentice relationship in modern enterprises under the market economy system. Based on the experience in Germany and Japan ， it is nec- essary to impose proper coordination on economic operation through social forces ， and we can employ different modes in product market and labor market. The development of moder apprenticeship in China is also challenged by inadequate infrastructure ， such as the lack of national vocational teaching standards ， master system as well as the path to the apprentice’s career development. System reform and the improvement of infrastructure can help guarantee the development of modern apprenticeship. As modern apprenticeship is a very complex system， research on the system requires a multi-perspective ， involving not only economic sociology ， labor market theory ， but also the perspective of social constructivism to explore social mechanism which may contribute to its development.
|關鍵詞||职业教育、现代学徒制、关键问题、vocational education、modern apprenticeship、key issues|