The Critiques on the Contributions of the Gramscian School to the Studies of School Resistant Culture
A. Gramsci argues that instead of coercive force through political and economic fields， the ruling group needs to acquire the leadership in norms and intellectual spheres for maintaining its dominant status. Organic intellectuals come to complete this political mission by transforming ts value into the mainstream of social cultures. The perspective of cultural hegemony， thus， highlights the political function of social cultures and， in turn， this insight has espoused the influence of the Gramscian School on cultural studies as evidenced by the predominant influence of resistant theory developed by S. Hall and ceiling theory developed by J. Ogbu. These theories focus on how working class youths are commi tted to sustaining their collective class identity， existing meaning and development space through the resistant behaviors. While the Gramscian School has provided a unique perspective for cultural studies and has become a pre- dominant research paradigm in cultural studies， tt stil has some shortcomings. Belonging to Marxism that views conllicts between social classes as an unavoidable structured outcome， this predetermined assump-tton makes the Gramscian School overlook the dynamic nature of social development and consumption culture， which has largely reshaped the structure of social classes and blurred their boundary. Furthermore， this predetermined assumption also neglects the positive inlluence of social reward system which is the core element in generating social progression and， in turn， the resistant theories are confined themselves within the ideological cage and cannot assist working class students to achieve upwards mobility through educa- tton.
|關鍵詞||葛兰西学派、文化霸权、抗拒理论、消费文化、劳工阶级青少年、Gramscian School、cultural hegemony、resistant theory、consumption culture、social reward system、working class youths|