Higher Education Governance in Germany ： Caught between University Autonomy and Academic Freedom
Higher education autonomy has emerged in Germany through the interplay between European integration process and German federalism reform. In fact， higher education autonomy characterized by deregulation， independence and competition promotes the transformation from higher education leadership into higher education governance. This paper takes examples of the promulgation and enforcement of North Rhine -Westphalians Higher Education Freedom Law， as well as the transformation of the state University of Frankfurt into Foundation University， to analyze the recent development of autonomous modes of German higher education institutions. The newly installed university board at the level of university leadership is undoubtedly the hinge of this institutional reform， but also triggers concerns or even criticisms. The essence of the dispute is that university autonomy is particularity featured by academic freedom and can also suppress basic democracy or even overturn academic freedom. The author believes that higher education governance can hardly strike a balance between university autonomy and academic freedom. The principle of ＂Freedom of Academy， Freedom of Research， and Freedom of Teaching & Study＂ is an institutional bottom line that should never be broken， even if higher education governance is overcautiously deducing between university autonomy and academic freedom.
|關鍵詞||高校治理、高校自治、学术自由、高校委员会、德国高等教育、Higher Education Governance、University Autonomy、Academic Freedom、University Board、Higher Education in Germany|