探討兒童青少年拒學問題:生態系統觀的原因、介入與案例,ERICDATA高等教育知識庫
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篇名
探討兒童青少年拒學問題:生態系統觀的原因、介入與案例
並列篇名
The Exploration of Youth School Refusal Problem: Causes, Intervention, and Case Study from Ecological Perspective
作者 許淨惠
中文摘要

兒童青少年拒學問題一直以來都是複雜和難解的課題。筆者基於生態系統觀點的四個因素探討拒學原因與介入方法,並提出三個層次的原因與介入模式,以在有限的時間和資源內改善出席率。原因部分,個人因素包含:1.身體狀況,2.心理狀況,3.特質;家庭因素包含:1.家長特質與身心健康,2.家庭功能與家庭動力,3.家庭期待與參與度,4.創傷或壓力事件, 5.管教技巧;學校因素包含:1.轉換學校,2.學校氛圍,3.管教與出席,4.課程與要求,5.師生或同儕關係,6.親師生溝通與合作;社會因素包含:1.經濟拉力,2.文化價值觀,3.政策或法規,4.較少社會支持,5.不安全或混亂的社區。介入部分,個人因素包含:1.醫療介入,2.提昇行為技巧,3.增進認知技巧,4.提供專業資源;家庭因素包含:1.進行意外或風險管理訓練,2.提供諮詢或家訪,3.提供認知訓練,4. 轉介家族治療,5.增進管教技巧;學校因素包含:1.辨識和轉介高風險學生,2.推動反霸凌政策,3.鼓勵學習社群與生涯活動,4.提升行為管理技巧,5.發展個別教育計畫,6.增進關係並善用同儕,7.訓練社交與情緒管理技巧;社會因素包含:1.社區資源,2.警政與司法,3.社會機構與媒體,4.教育、諮商與醫療。此外,本文還探討拒學評估工具。最後提出中年級拒學案例說明如何改善拒學。

 

英文摘要

Problematic school refusal in youth has long been a complex and vexatious issue. This article reviews the literature to outline important four factors that affect school refusal based on ecological perspective. Furthermore, a three-level model that emphasizes on comprehensive causes and user-friendly systematic intervention recommendations to improve school attendance with limited time and resources. Among the causes, personal factors include physical condition, mental condition and trait. Family factors include parents’ trait, mental and physical health, family function and family dynamic, family expectations and involvement, stress or traumatic events, and parenting skills. School factors include transferring schools, school atmosphere, discipline and attendance policies, curriculum and requirements, teacher-student or peer relationship, and communication and cooperation among teachers, parents and students. Social factors include economic pressures, cultural values, policies or regulations, lack of social support, and unsafe or chaotic communities. Regarding interventions, personal factors can be addressed through medical treatment, enhancing behavioral skills, increasing cognitive skills, and providing professional resources. Family factors can be addressed through conducting accident or risk training, consultation and home visits, providing cognitive training, referring to family therapy, and improving parenting skills. School factors include identifying and referring high-risk students, promoting an anti-bullying policy, encouraging learning groups and career activities, increasing behavior management skills, developing individual education plans, improving teacher-student relationships, and make good use of peers. They can also train students on social and emotional management skills. Social factors include community resources, policing and Justice, social organizations and media, education, and counseling and medical services. Besides, the article also explores related evaluation tools. In the end, there is a case example of a fourth-grade child, explains how to address school refusal.

 

起訖頁 032-061
關鍵詞 拒學兒童青少年生態系統觀原因介入
刊名 臺灣諮商心理學報  
期數 202405 (12:1期)
出版單位 社團法人臺灣諮商心理學會
DOI 10.53106/2304781X2024051201002   複製DOI
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