An Action Research on the Integration of Board Games into Social Skills Teaching to Improve Interpersonal Interaction for the Student with Visual Impairment
In Taiwan, special education is committed to promoting inclusive education. Therefore, students in centralized special education classes in many schools are assigned part of the time to ordinary classes, so that students in special education classes have the opportunity to interact and communicate with teachers and students in ordinary classes. However, it was found that special students lack social skills, and there are still many difficulties in interacting with ordinary class students. In order to solve the problems observed by researchers in the teaching field, the purpose of this study is as follows. (1) To develop the teaching of social skills of board games for the student with visual impairment. (2) To explore whether the teaching of board game integration and social skills to the student with visual impairment can improve inappropriate behaviors in interpersonal interaction, and whether it can enhance interpersonal interaction with sighted peers. (3) To understand the researcher’s teaching growth and reflection in the process of teaching research. Literature review: Social skills of visually impaired students: Many studies had pointed out that in addition to systematic curriculum planning, the curriculum design of providing social skills for visually impaired students pays more attention to providing opportunities to interact with sighted peers during the curriculum, so as to increase the experience of practical interpersonal interaction. In Taiwan, relevant research on the intervention of social skills teaching for visually impaired students mainly focuses on improving social skills of visually impaired students through direct teaching or group training to cope with their interpersonal challenges. However, the research design of interacting with discerning peers had not been introduced into the curriculum. Application of board games in special education and considerations for visually impaired students: In recent years, board games have been paid more and more attention to and widely used in the teaching of special students. In terms of the objects of empirical research, most of them focused on teaching interventions to improve the interpersonal interaction of students with autism, intellectual disability, ADHD, etc. At the same time, in recent years, we have also begun to see the design and research of board games targeting the visually impaired. However, they were still lack of relevant empirical research on how to improve the interpersonal interaction of visually impaired students by teaching courses through board games. Therefore, this study intends to develop and revise the teaching plan of integrating board games into social skills. At the same time, evaluate the implementation effect of board games integrating social skills teaching on the interpersonal interaction between the student of visual impairment and discerning students. And analyze the impact of the implementation process on teachers’ professionalism Intellectual growth and reflection.
Action research: This study adopted the action research method to explore the practice and effect of integrating board games into the teaching of social skills for the student of visual impairment. Participants: A fourth-grade visually impaired student in a centralized special education class in an ordinary school, and six discerning board game interactive students. These six students had no disability qualifications, were recommended by teachers to be emotionally stable, and had no interaction experience with the visually impaired student in this study. In addition, this study also included other relevant participants, including researchers, teacher assistants, teachers in integrated classes, students in integrated classes, etc. Curriculum design: This study designed 8 weeks and 16 lessons for teaching intervention, the first four weeks as the first round, and the last four weeks as the second round. Each lesson lasts forty minutes, and there were two classes a week. The first class of the week was teaching social skills through direct teaching; the second class was board game activities, inviting students with discerning eyes to participate in the board game together, if the student of visual impairment had inappropriate behavior during the process, teacher paused the game immediately and taught the appropriate method at the same time. The table games in this study were: “Arabian Pot” for hearing, “UNO” for vision, and “Star Trek” for touch. At the same time, when interacting with the table games, adjust the playing methods and rules of the board games in a timely manner according to the characteristics of the visually impaired students and the relevant precautions in the teaching of the student of visual impairment. Research tools: The research tools in this study included: Social Skills Behavior and Characteristics Checklist for Primary and Secondary Schools, Board Game Social Skills Record Form, Integration Class Behavior Observation Record Form, Interview Record, Teaching Reflection Log. Research process: The research processes were divided into three stages. The first stage was the preparatory stage. The second stage was the teaching practice stage. This implementation plan was not a one-way straight line. If new problems or teaching difficulties were discovered during the research process, the solution would be rethought and new action strategies would be implemented. The third stage was the data processing and analysis stage after teaching. Data processing and analysis: This research used different sources to collect data, including teaching reflections, text files translated from teaching videos, standardized assessment tests, board game social skills record sheets, fusion class behavior observation record sheets, and interview data of different subjects. At the same time, triangular cross-validation was carried out to check the consistency and reliability of the data. Research ethics: In this study, informed consent was obtained from the research subjects and relevant participants.
The results showed that, (1) The developed curriculum plan was a feasible teaching method; (2) The student with visual impairment had improved social skills such as “improving frustration tolerance”, “not misinterpreting other people’s meaning”, “not touching other people’s objects casually”, and he enhanced the interpersonal interaction in ordinary classes; (3) The action research helped to increase teacher’s professional knowledge.
The teaching suggestion is to establish opportunities for ordinary students and special students to study together, and for special education teachers to take the initiative. Suggestions for future research include increasing the duration of social skills lessons and using board games to train other social skills.
|視覺障礙學童、社會技巧、桌上遊戲、行動研究、student with visual impairment、board games、social skill、action research