東勢客家話陰平變調與小稱調的比較研究:社會語音學觀點,ERICDATA高等教育知識庫
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篇名
東勢客家話陰平變調與小稱調的比較研究:社會語音學觀點
並列篇名
Comparison of Yinping Tone Sandhi and Diminutive Tone in Dongshi Hakka: A Perspective on Sociophonetics
作者 張月珍鄭明中
中文摘要
本研究針對東勢客家話陰平變調及小稱調進行社會語音學研究,並同時考量語體、性別、年齡等因素的影響。本研究的參與者為60名說東勢客家話發音人,依據性別、年齡分六組,每組10人。本研究透過三組字表及一篇閱讀短文來蒐集語料,並利用Praat分析單字調、陰平變調與小稱調的基頻,續以單字調基頻分析結果來進行陰平變調與小稱調的聲調五度制轉換,接著計算基頻相關參數。研究結果如下:一、傳統調查將這兩個聲調均記為[35],但聲學分析為[33/34],何者出現則與語體正式度及年齡因素有關;二、除青年層外,陰平變調高於小稱調,小稱調長於陰平變調;三、年齡在所有基頻參數裡均呈現顯著差異,其中又以青年層變化最大,性別則無顯著差異;四、不論字表或閱讀短文,老、中、青三代所呈現的小稱調格局差異不大,但陰平變調格局在中、老年層與青年層頗有差異,前者為[34],後者為[33];五、青年層的陰平變調格局下降,且與小稱調重疊,顯示青年層已無法掌握陰平變調,因而產生回歸陰平本調讀法,本研究認為這種情況可能源自臺灣國語的影響。最後,本研究一方面從語音學與音韻學的本質差異來說明社會語音學與傳統方言學在調查結果上的不同,另一方面針對青年層陰平變調讀回陰平本調的原因提出合理說明。
英文摘要
This study explored Yinping tone sandhi (YTS) and diminutive tone (DT) in Dongshi Dapu Hakka from a sociophonetic perspective. This study also explored the tonal difference between YTS and DT and the factors that affect it, such as register, age, and sex. Sixty participants, divided into six groups on the basis of age and sex, were recruited. Speech data were gathered using three wordlists and a reading passage with YTSs and DTs. Praat was used to measure the fundamental frequency (F0) of YTSs, DTs, and citation tones, and the F0 values of the citation tones were used as the basis for normalizing YTSs and DTs into a 5 point tonal scale and calculate the F0-related parameters. The results were as follows. First, although traditional dialectology indicates that the tonal value of YTS and DT is [35], they were [33] and [34] in this study, depending on speech formality and age. Second, YTS was higher in tonal pattern than DT, and DT was longer than YTS, except among the young generation. Third, age induced a significant difference in all F0-related parameters, especially among young participants, but sex did not. Fourth, only a slight difference in the tonal pattern of the DTs was observed among the three generations for both the wordlists and reading passages. However, a significant difference in the tonal patterns of the YTSs was observed between the younger and older generations, with the tonal value of the older generations being [34] and that of the younger generation being [33]. Fifth, the YTS tonal pattern of the young generation was downgraded and overlapped that of their DTs. The young generation exhibited a substantial change in YTS, did not follow the YTS rules, and read YTS as Yinping citation tone [33]. This might be due to the influence of Taiwanese Mandarin. Last, this study explored the differences between sociophonetics and traditional dialectology in terms of the phonetics–phonology dichotomy to explain why the young generation read YTS as the Yinping citation tone.
起訖頁 101-144
關鍵詞 小稱東勢客家話基頻變調diminutiveDongshiHakkafundamental frequencytone sandhi
刊名 師大學報  
期數 202203 (67:1期)
出版單位 國立臺灣師範大學
DOI 10.6210/JNTNU.202203_67(1).0004   複製DOI
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