調整焦點、目標時間距離對創造力表現的影響,ERICDATA高等教育知識庫
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篇名
調整焦點、目標時間距離對創造力表現的影響
並列篇名
The Effects of Regulatory Focus and Temporal Distance to the Goal on Creativity
作者 邱發忠姚妃宴
中文摘要
過去研究大多認為創造力是穩定恆久的人格特質,但其實短暫情境的促發線索也會影響個體創造力的表現。因此,本研究以三個實驗分別探究「調整焦點動機」與「目標時間距離」促發對創造力表現的影響。實驗一、二受試者分別被要求進行攻擊、防禦作戰思考,俾分別誘發促進焦點與預防焦點動機,結果發現經此促進焦點動機促發後提升了受試者在中文遠距聯想量表、頓悟性問題測驗上的表現(相對於控制組);但預防焦點動機促發(相對於控制組)卻未降低創造力的表現。實驗三探究「調整焦點」與「目標時間距離」兩變項對創造力表現的交互作用效果。調整焦點動機的操弄方式如同實驗一、二(促進焦點以攻擊思考、預防焦點以防禦思考);而目標時間距離則要求受試者思考近目標時間距離(明天攻擊或防禦)與遠目標時間距離(一年後攻擊或防禦)的攻擊或防禦作戰,之後,進行中文遠距聯想量表的施測。結果發現,在促進焦點動機思考促發狀況下,近目標時間距離思考組在中文遠距聯想量表表現上高於遠目標時間距離思考及中性組。在預防焦點動機思考促發下,遠目標時間距離思考組的表現高於近目標時間距離思考組、中性組。在近目標時間距離思考狀況下,促進焦點動機思考表現高於預防焦點動機思考促發組,但是,在遠目標時間距離狀況下,促進與預防焦點兩組則未呈現顯著差異。本研究顯示了促進焦點動機穩定的助益創造力表現,而且,目標時間距離變項扮演了調節調整焦點動機與創造力表現間的關係。
英文摘要
Creativity has been commonly deemed as a stable personality trait. However, creativity can also be affected by situationalclues. This study consisting of three experiments was designed to investigate the effects of situational clues of “focusregulation” and “action recency” on creative performance of young adults. In Experiment 1 and 2, two types of focus for future actions, a focus on offensive actions and a focus on defensive actions, were induced to participants in two treatment conditions. Compared with the performance of participants of a control group, in which no focus was intentionally induced, creativity of participants in the two treatment conditions, measured by the Chinese Remote Association Test (CRAT) and Test of Insight Problem (TIP), was significantly better. But, the prevention priming can not inhibit the performance of CRAT and TIP. In Experiment 3, another independent variable of action recency was added to investigate the interaction effect between regulatory focus and temporal distance to the goal on creativity. The variable of focus regulation was manipulated in the same way as in Experimental 1 and 2 (focus on either offense or defense actions), whereas the variable of action recency was manipulated by asking participants to think the actions being carried out with different levels of recency (tomorrow vs. next year). Creativity was measured with the CRAT. An interaction effect between regulatory focus and action recency was reported. For participants with the offense focus, the high recency group (actions carried out tomorrow) outperformed the group with the low recency (actions carried out in next year) in creativity; for participants with the defense focus, the pattern was reversed. For participants with the high recency, the group with the offense focus outperformed the group with the defense focus in creativity measured by CRAT. For participants with the low recency, the difference between the two focus groups was not significant. This study suggests offense focus facilitates creativity. Moreover, the action recency moderates the relationship between regulatory focus and creativity.
起訖頁 497-520
關鍵詞 目標時間距離創造力預防焦點促進焦點TemporalDistance to the Goal on CreativityThe Effects of Regulatory Focus
刊名 教育心理學報  
期數 201003 (41:3期)
出版單位 國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系
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