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From Competency-based to Standard-based Teacher Education
|中文摘要||自1980年代開始，一些先進國家（如美國、英國、澳州等）為提升國際競爭力，紛紛將教育興革的重心逐漸轉向建立教師知識框架（a framework for teacher knowledge），企圖將優良的教師圖像具體化，透過發展或修訂教師專業標準（teacher professional standard），引導該國師資培育之發展，進而提出國家層級的教師專業模式（national standards model），以完善該國之教師圖像。故本文將先闡述建立教師知識框架的沿革，再釐清教師知識框架，從能力本位（competency-base）轉移到標準本位（standard based）的研究典範，並列舉主要國家（英國、美國、紐西蘭、澳洲）所訂定之教師專業模式，最後借鏡Eurkheim、Bernstein及Shulman的理論，探究教師專業標準在師資培育課程之具體作法，提供我國未來落實標準本位師資培育理念於實務中之參考，藉以完善我國新時代教師圖像。|
|英文摘要||Since the 1980s, to promote international competitiveness, some advanced countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia have changed their directions in education reform. These countries have put more efforts in establishing “Teacher Competence Framework”, which includes to concrete the image of great teacher, to refresh teacher education through the development or revision of “Teacher Professional Standard”, and thus, at the national level to demonstrate a “National Standards Model”, improving teachers’ images in the country. The historical trend in education reform of the advanced countries provides an important model for Taiwan’s education reform.
This paper aims to discuss the important theories in teacher education, to compare practice in diverse countries, and to provide probabilities for Taiwan’s education reform. First, this paper sets out the history of the teacher competency framework. Second, it goes to clarify the teacher competency framework from a competency-based model to a standard-based model, which is illustrated by examples from the major countries (The United States, New Zealand, and Australia). Finally, this paper uses Durkheim, Bernstein, and Shulman and SHULMAN teacher knowledge framework to explore the specific measures of teacher professional standards applied in teacher training courses. Through the recognition of Teacher Competence Framework and comparison practices in major countries, it may provide our country in the future implementation about Standard-based teacher training concept and its probabilities for Taiwan moving forward to the new era of teacher images.
|關鍵詞||師資培育、能力本位、教師知識、框架、教師專業標準、標準本位、teacher education policy、competency-based、a framework for teacher education、teacher professional standard、standards-based|
|DOI||10.3966/168063602017010273005 複製DOI DOI申請|