Studying the Parent-adolescent Interaction Experiences in a Taiwanese-Indonesian Transnational Marriage Family: A Case Study
東南亞跨國婚姻家庭的親子教養一直是學界與實務服務的焦點，隨著子女進入青春期，這些家庭的親子 互動更需被多加探討。本文探究東南亞跨國婚姻家庭中父母與國中生子女之親子互動經驗，採個案研究 法，並以一個臺印跨國婚姻家庭為例。研究結果首先呈現子女步入青春期後的教養轉變、「父主經濟、 母主照顧」的親職分工，以及隨子女接受學校教育，新住民母親與青少年子女的中文能力落差影響母親 之親職權能。論及共親職經驗，可見新住民母親雖作為主要教養者，但為能促進臺籍父親與子女互動， 加上父權意識型態與先生是家中經濟來源者的影響，母親會積極把先生拉進教養同盟，並在重要教養決 策事件傾向「以夫為尊」。最後在親子互動的跨文化經驗中，當新住民母親擬教授子女印尼語時曾受到 隱微壓抑，然隨著相關契機出現，母親的母國文化能逐漸具現在親子互動上。基於上述，本文發現在形 成共親職共識、雙親積極行動與相互配合及家庭成員善用跨文化的相近性並接納差異性等條件支持下， 東南亞跨國婚姻家庭可形成正向動力系統，助益親子互動;另，受性別文化、家計維持角色及在地教育 體制優勢等影響，新住民母親雖是主要教養者，然臺籍父親是教養決策者與生涯諮詢者，此在子女步入 青春期後更為明顯。本文最後依研究結果對諮商實務與未來研究提出建議。
The educational and upbringing experiences of transnational marriages between Taiwan and Southeast Asian countries have always been the focus of academics and helping professions in Taiwan. As children grow up to adolescence, the parent-adolescent interaction of these families is a topic that needs to be discussed. The purpose of this study was to explore parent-adolescent interaction experiences in a Southeast Asian transnational marriage family in Taiwan, including upbringing, coparenting and cross-cultural experiences. This study selected one Taiwanese-Indonesian transnational marriage family as a case, and semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with all family members, including parents and adolescents. The results are as followed: (1) Upbringing experiences: Parents had gradually changed their upbringing strategies when children grew up to adolescence-from strict disciplines to self-management. The division of parenting work "the father is responsible for family economy; the mother is in charge of care work" was the main upbringing strategy in the daily life or schoolwork. Also, as children grew up to adolescence and accepted school education, the discrepancy of Chinese speaking ability between Indonesian new resident mother and adolescents influenced their interactions. In other words, adolescents showed better Chinese speaking ability than Indonesian mother, and this difference in language proficiency not only overturned Indonesian mother’s upbringing role but also affected her parenting authority, especially when quarrels appeared between mother and adolescents. (2) Coparenting experiences: Gender division of housework "male leads outside; female leads inside" was the pattern of parenting practice in this family. Indonesian mother was the main executor in parenting, but in order to facilitate the interaction between Taiwanese father and adolescents, she used her strategies positively, pulling father into parenting alliance. Also, affected unconsciously by ideology of patriarchy and thought of "the father is responsible for family economy",Indonesian mother intended to respect her husband in some crucial parenting decision-making, especially when it came to paying money. (3) Cross-cultural experiences: In this case, Indonesian mother had ethnic Chinese background, so all the family members felt few cross-cultural differences. But when Indonesian mother tried to teach some easy Indonesian words or sentences for her daughter and son at their very young age, it still showed parenting authority discrepancies between Taiwanese father and Indonesian mother-that was, Indonesian mother’s native language was not accepted by Taiwanese father at the beginning. However, as pivotal opportunities appeared, like new resident culture courses in school, Indonesian language learning chance brought by Indonesian mother’s relatives and adolescents going back to Indonesia with mother to learn Indonesian cultures through practice, Indonesian mother’s native culture began to be taught in parent-adolescent interactions. Based on study results, two findings are as followed: (1) With related conditions such as co-parenting consensus, positive acts and cooperation of parents, good use of cross-cultural similarities, and acceptance of differences, it could form positive dynamic system and benefit parent-adolescent interaction in Southeast Asian transnational marriage families. (2) Due to the influence of gender culture and because Taiwanese father was the role of household maintenance and was familiar with local educational system, the phenomenon that new resident mother spent more time in parenting but Taiwanese father was the main decision maker and the career consultant became more obvious as children grew up to adolescence. Suggestions for counseling practices are also elaborated according to this study: (1) Counselors are suggested to give attention to how those different systems and factors bring positive influences to Taiwanese-Indonesian transnational marriage families. (2) Counselors are suggested to be sensitive to hidden power issues in Taiwanese-Indonesian transnational marriage families. (3) Related information and knowledge about Southeast Asian transnational marriage families are necessary for counselors. Also, counselors are suggested to inspect their own values and take good use of family system perspectives when conceptualizing clients or families.
|關鍵詞||青少年子女、東南亞跨國婚姻家庭、新住民、臺印跨國婚姻、親子互動經驗、Adolescent、new resident、parent-adolescent interaction experiences、Southeast Asian transnational marriage family、Taiwanese-Indonesian transnational marriage|