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篇名
「不想成為班上的小白兔!」:以符號詮釋自閉症學童在融合教育中友誼建立之挑戰
並列篇名
“Don’t Want to be a Pet Rabbit in Class!”: Using Symbolic Interpretation to Explore the Challenges of Friendship Building on Students with Autism in Inclusive Education
作者 姜義村
中文摘要
近幾年國內外研究開始對融合教育進行反省,嘗試轉換過去以社會、行政或教育系統之「人權」、「正常化」、「主流」、「教育均等」……等的「巨觀」觀點進行,開始傾聽與反思融合教育中參與實務工作之教師和實際受教之特殊學生與其家長的「微觀」經驗與回饋。本研究以質性研究法之多元研究取向,蒐集國內外各層面有關融合教育與自閉症學童之相關文獻,以兼顧巨觀與微觀之多元層級方式檢視過去在國內外的適應體育實務教學經驗、分析比對過去二個國內外自閉症學童相關研究計畫資料,並透過符號學角度詮釋自閉症學童在融合教育過程中友誼建立的挑戰與未來因應方向。研究結果以Peirce 符號系統詮釋自閉症學童在融合教育之河暗藏友誼建立之「失友漩渦」,其漩渦以瞭解社會訊息的缺陷為中心,經由低社會讚許、低同儕聲望、低社會期待、被容忍與忽視形成惡性循環力量讓自閉症學童難以在同儕之間建立友誼,而教師也經常感受到無力感、無助感與愧疚心態面對此一漩渦。此符號現象探究融合教育實務中自閉症學童在友誼建立過程所遭遇的挑戰以及所蘊含的衝突意涵,究竟是高舉人權教育的火炬賦予自閉症學童回歸主流教育的權力,抑或是在實質上成為協助教育體系執行正常化觀念並壓抑自閉症學童自我倡導的刑具。本研究根據結果建議學校教育當局應正視上述教學場域中的現況,能積極傾聽融合教育實施過程中教師、家長與學生的感受與經驗,並期待學校能有健全的配套措施與制度面的支援體系,營造自閉症學童更「友」善的教育環境。
英文摘要
Purpose: Recent research in inclusive education began using the micro-viewpoint instead of the macro-viewpoint, such as human rights, normalization, mainstreaming, and educational equity, to explore the learning process of students with special needs, teaching experiences of special education teachers, and parent feedback. This study aims to explore the challenges of facilitating ideal inclusive learning environment and to discover possible solutions of friendship building on students with autism in inclusive education through the theoretical framework of semiotics. Methods: Integrating macro- and micro- viewpoints within multi-level perspectives, a multi-method qualitative research approach was used to collect and compare the findings of 1 U.S. autism research grant, 1 Taiwan autism research grant, personal teaching/training experiences in adapted physical education, and special education on students with autism. To obtain qualitative information and deepen the findings, recent autism-related theses and dissertations on inclusive education from 2002 to 2010 were also reviewed and analyzed. Constant comparison was used to analyze the qualitative information with QSR Nvivo7. Findings: Using semiotics in the Peirce system, the findings showed that a symbol, whirlpool of losing friends, can be found in a mainstreaming river, defined as an argument, to explain the dilemma of friendship building on students with autism. Beginning from the icon, deficits in understanding social cues, the whirlpool was formed and reinforced by 4 indices, low levels of social desirability, poor social reputation, low social expectation, and being tol.114. erated and ignored. Finally, identified as another icon, special education teachers also expressed their feelings of guilt, helplessness, and hopelessness when they found they could not help, improve, or change the current situation in this inclusive education system. Conclusions/Implications: The results identified that students with autism have challenges in friendship building in inclusive education. Current practices of inclusive education may create challenges that actually conflict with the ideal situation of inclusive education. The findings remind educators to think critically whether inclusive education provides students with autism the right to have a normalized educational environment or if it is actually an instrument of torture that suppresses self-advocacy of students with autism to execute political mainstreaming in ideal educational situations. This study suggests that school authorities and superintendents focus on the individual feelings and personal experiences of students with autism, elicit feedback from parents and special education teachers to provide sound resources, support their needs, and create a friendly inclusive education environment.
起訖頁 87-114
關鍵詞 符號學泛自閉症障礙質性研究semioticsautism spectrum disorderqualitative research
刊名 特殊教育研究學刊  
期數 201111 (36:3期)
出版單位 國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系
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一般兒童與自閉症兒童在不同溝通中斷類型之修補能力研究

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