本研究旨在探討兒童和青少年後設認知的發展並進而驗證後設認知的可教性及其教學成效。 本研究以國小三年級至國中三年級的男女學生為研究對象，進行後設認知發展之調查研究，並選取一所國小的三年級、五年級和一所國中的一、二年級學生，進行後設認知的閱讀策略教學實驗，結果得到下列幾項發現： （一）兒童和青少年後設認知的發展，隨年齡之不同而有差異；年齡小的學生，後設認知較差，年齡大的學生，後設認知則較佳。 （二）兒童和青少年後設認知的發展，部份隨性別之不同而有差異，但大部份不因其性別之不同而有差異。 （三）各年級的實驗組，經過後設認知的閱讀策略教學之後，大部份比控制組顯著的增進了學生的後設認知，少部份則未見比控制組有顯著的增進。
The purpose of this study was to explore the development of metacognition in children and adolescents and to further testify whether metacognition might be teachable and its effectiveness. The subjects of this study were male and female students from the 3rd grade to the 9th grade. In the beginning， the metacognition of elementary school students and junior high school students were investigated. Then an experiment on reading through metacognitive teaching strategies was done with the subjects of the 3rd grade， the 5th grade， the 7th grade and the 8th grade. The results of this study are stated as follows: 1.The development of metacognition in children and adolescents differs according to the age. In the youngers， the metacognition are worst， whereas in the elders， the metacognition are best. 2.The development of metacognition in children and adolescents differs partly according to the sex， but most of the students do not differ according to the sex. 3.Most experimental-group students through the metacognitive reading strategies teaching show significantly greater improvement in their metacognition than the control-group students， whereas some experimental-group students to not show significantly greater improvement in their metacognition than the control-group students.