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篇名
人性化的行為治療
並列篇名
The Humanistic Behavior Theory
作者 戴嘉南
中文摘要
當前的心理治療學者對人性各持不同的看法,故也使用各種學派的技術去協助當事人解決問題。雖然當事人中心治療理論與行為理論是相對立的,但二者的統合是更有效的治療方法,此一折衷的治療法可稱之為人性化的行為治療。此一治療方法重視對此時的經驗、自我接納的學習、改變不適感覺、思考及態度的抉擇等。因此,當前的行為、精確的治療目標、不同的治療策略、及治療結果客觀的評鑑倍受重視。其主要的假設是人的自我知覺能力、保有獨特而統整的自我、與人交互作用、及生活焦慮與死亡可有不同的意義。治療的目標在於(1)提供當事人安全、信任的情境以期覺知影響正常發展的種種困境;(2)建立新的學習情境。當事人與治療者的關是平等的,故治療者須具有真誠、無限積極的關切、及同理心。但有時也必須扮演主動的指導者。因此,在治療過程常用肌肉鬆弛訓練、系統減敏法、代幣制度、懲罰、楷模示範、自我肯定訓練、自我管理、嫌惡法及多層面治療。人性化行為治療將更為人所接受,尤以多層面治療更適用於團體諮商與治療上。 人性化行為治療較當事人中心及行為治療均利多弊少,但卻仍忽視歷史因素對行為影響力,僅能視為折衷方法,並非一個完整的治療理論。
英文摘要
A current, clinical therapist always owns a few views of human nature and uses more different techniques from various theories to help the clients to cope effectively with their problems. The humanistic theory is opposed to the behavioristic theory. However, the synthesis of humanistic and behavioristic theories would be more comprehensive and effective for therapeutic practice. This eclectic therapy is named as the humanistic behavior therapy. the approach focuses on fully experiencing the present to moment, learning to accept oneself, and deciding ways to change inappropriate feeling, thinking, and attitude. current behavior, precise treatment goals, diverse and deiect therapeutic strategies, and objective evaluation of therapeutic outcomes are emphasized. The therapeutic goals are(1) to provide a clinical safety and trust in the therapeutic setting so that the client can become aware of blocks to growth and be a fully functioning person;(2) to create new conditions for learning. The client/therapist relationship is characterized by a sense of equality. Thus, the therapist needs the following personality characteristics to form a friendly therapeutic relationship: congruence of genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and accurate empathic understanding. However, the therapist sometimes plays an active, directive role in diagnosing maladaptive behavior and in prescribing curative procedures as a teacher, director, and expert. Ther primary techniques, used during the therapeutic process, include relaxation training, systematic desensitization, token economy, punishment, modeling, assertion training, self-management, aversive control, and multimodal therapy. the humanistic behavior therapy will be accepted by the persons more pervasively than the person-centered therapy or the behavior therapy. Particularly, multimodal therapy is well suited for group counseling and group therapy besides individual psychotherapy. The humanistic behavior therapy not only decrease the limitations which come from client-centered therapy and behavioral therapy but also created some specific contributions. However, the humanistic behavior therapy ignores the historical causes of present behavior and is rigidly considered just as an eclecticism of therapy.
起訖頁 307-316
刊名 教育學刊  
期數 199012 (9期)
出版單位 國立高雄師範大學教育學系
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教學直導化與學生學習成效的探討

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