The Effects of Cram Schooling on Educational Attainment in the Secondary School Diversified Admission Plan
補習是正式學校教育外的一種補充或補救的學習活動，被視為有助於提高學業表現或進入理想學校的一顆萬靈丹，其效用更獲得大多數實證研究的支持。因此本文除了繼續深入探討有關補習的效用外，還將進一步探討補習與教育取得間的關係及何種補習型態最有效等兩個問題。原始資料取自臺灣教育長期追蹤資料庫（Taiwan Education Panel Survey， TEPS），並運用階梯式Binary Logit模式做為資料的分析方式，研究結果發現：(1)在控制其他相關因素後，隨著入學方式及結果變項的不同，補習的效用並沒有完全獲得一致的效果；(2)在推薦及申請入學管道上，補習與教育取得（升普通體系vs.技職體系、升公立學校vs.私立學校）間的關係呈現出正向的線性關係，而在聯考及登記分發入學管道上則未發現有任何關係；(3)在第一階段的入學管道上，補習的最佳效果並不發生在補習次數最多的組別上。因為本研究結果與過去研究發現相較之下略有差異，因此在未來的研究上，有需要進一步去探討為什麼在不同的入學管道及結果變項上，補習的效果會有不一致的現象、補習對不同社經地位學童的功能是什麼及家長、學生如何善用補習以利於進入理想的好學校等三個研究課題。
Cram schooling is a set of educational activities that occur outside formal schooling and are designed to enhance the students’ academic performance or to help them to earn admission to elite schools. The hypothesis concerning the effects of cram schooling was supported by most empirical researches. Therefore， three specific questions about cram schooling in Taiwan are explored in this study: (1) Does participation in cram-schooling increase educational attainment? (2) Is the relationship between cram schooling and educational attainment linear or nonlinear? (3) Which type of cram schooling works best?By means of sequent logit model for binary data to analyze the raw data from TEPS， the results are as follows: (1) Varying by the ways of entrance to the postsecondary schools and outcome variables， there was no consistent evidence to support the effects of cram schooling after controlling for other relevant factors; (2) The relationship between cram schooling and educational attainment revealed positive liner relationship through recommendation and application not registration-and-distribution and joint examination in the secondary school diversified admission plan 2000; (3) The best effect of cram schooling didn’t occur in the group with the most intensive cram schooling through recommendation and application instead of the other two ways.Since the results found are different from the previous studies， there are three suggestions about follow-up. The first is to probe why there are no consistent effects of cram schooling on two indicators of measuring educational attainment through various admission ways of the secondary school diversified admission plan. Then， to examine functions of cram schooling for children with different SES is the second suggestion. Exploring how students and parents make use of cram schooling in order to attend prestigious schools constitutes the last part.
|關鍵詞||補習、教育取得、教育機會不均等、Cram schooling、Educational attainment、Inequality of educational opportunity|