The Study of the Provincial Director of Education in the Qing
The institution， which assigned the special officer for managing localeducation and examination， dates from Sung Dynasty (960-1279) China. The officeralways acted as administrator， educationalist， and controlling inspector. InQing Dynasty (1644-1911)， the role of the director of education sent to theprovince by order of the emperor was similar， however， were But there was somedifference as follows:1.Every director held the jinshi academic degree (進士)and most of themwere scholars with a high literary degree in the National Academy (翰林院)2.The director was equal with the govrenor-general (總督)and governor (巡撫)within the province.3.His main tasks were to keep school discipline， to supervise the lowerdegree holders of gentry， especially the shengyuan status (生員)， and touphold the gentry's rights.4.During the three-year tenure， he was instructed to make the circuit of theprovince twice in order to hold sueykao or kekao examinations (歲考、科考)， and to select candidates to compete for the juren degree (舉人).For illustrating the director's role and task clearly， this articlespecially makes a case study of Change Chih-tung， the great statesman andeducator.When the number of western schools increased and traditional examinationswere cancelled， the director was replaced by commissioner of education duringLate Qing's reform. In spite of this， it is meaningful to inquire the originalintention and styles of the educational administration during Imperial China onthe study of the director of education.
|關鍵詞||學政、教育行政、張之洞、The provincial director of education、Educational administration、Chang Chih-tung|