An Analysis on the Reforms of Upper Secondary Curriculum--An European Point of View
The aim of this article is to explore the trends of development of the upper secondary curriculum in different European countries. In particular， this paper highlights the relationship between the general and the vocational curricula and their transformation in the face of common challenges in the last decades. The analysis is based on a two-dimension conceptual framework， On the one hand， according to the degree of differentiation between general and vocational curriculum， different curricula can be conceptualized as tracked， linked or unified curriculum. On the other hand， different principals of curriculum could be seen as exclusive or compatible. Thus， the insular and the connective models of curriculum can be distinguished. Recognizing the variation of different policies in different aspects， it is argued in this paper that two general trends can still be identified. First， all different types of upper secondary curricula have tried to reduce the degree of differentiation between general and vocational curricula which were formerly seen as divided. The trend is a move from the traced to the unified model. Second， different principles of curriculum have been increasingly seen as compatible rather than exclusive. The trend is a move from the insular to the connective model. Therefore， this paper concludes by suggesting that a general development of the upper secondary curriculum in Europe is towards a low differentiated / high connective model of the curriculum of the future.
|關鍵詞||後期中等教育、課程、教育改革、Upper secondary education、Curriculum、Educational reform|