From imitating to creating: Pre-service teachers’ meta-knowledge under interdisciplinary learning
當前的科學學習期望能夠使每個學生具有解決日常生活之能力，跨領域教學與學習已愈形重要，然而跨領域教學不僅在教材與教學的設計上仍處於方興未艾階段，第一線實際執行教學的教師更是亟待培訓。本研究從培養創客到使之成為創客師資之角度，在大學部開授二學分的探究實作課程，讓17名參與者學習並應用3D列印機，進行生活問題解決的創作，過程中設置線上學習輔助平臺，提供參與者課程內容影音輔助學習，以及相關資料的收集和分享。課程中參與者學習與利用工具機創作，於期末展示其作品，並說明問題解決的過程。研究採質性取向，以主題分析法（thematic analysis)，依自我調整學習（Self-Regulated Learning, SRL）和後設知識（meta-knowledge）的三個向度分析資料。研究發現經驗對於個體認知形成的過程是關鍵的；對於在被限制的材料環境中，設定創作議題或評估創作議題的可行性，稍嫌不足；在仿作過程中，教師的角色僅為諮詢者，即使教師未教授創作技巧，職前教師亦發展出具創作性的後設知識。另一方面，由仿作到共同創作的過程中，職前教師由「知不足」到展開「自我調適學習」，個人與社會性因素對於任務完成極具重要性。
Science learning today places great importance on students’ problem-solving skills in real life situations, and as a result, interdisciplinary teaching and learning have become increasingly essential. At present, however, instructional design and the development of teaching materials in this field are still growing and require the practice of teacher preparation. Consequently, a two-credit, inquiry- and practice-based course was offered for undergraduate students in this research with the aim of cultivating maker teachers in terms of fostering maker abilities. Seventeen participants in the course learned how to operate and apply a 3D printer to create some works to solve specific problems in people’s daily life; and at the end of the semester, they displayed their creations and elaborated upon the problem-solving process. An online learning platform was established during the course to provide learning assistance and to make data collecting and sharing more feasible. A qualitative approach and a thematic analysis method were implemented to analyze data that were respectively derived from three dimensions of self-regulated learning (SRL) as well as meta-knowledge. The main findings in the research include: 1. Experience plays a central role in the formation of individual cognition; 2. In a material-limited learning environment, there is still room for improvement for pre-service teachers to choose topics or to evaluate the feasibility of the topics; 3. In the process of imitation, even though the teachers behave as consultants and do not teach relevant skills, the creative meta-knowledge of pre-service teachers could be enhanced; and 4. From imitating to creating, the pre-service teachers show the realization of their deficiencies in the beginning and practice self-regulated learning during the process. The findings show both individual and social factors play important roles in task completion.
|關鍵詞||3D列印機、自我調整學習、後設知識、師資培育、跨領域、3D printer、self-regulated learning、meta-knowledge、teacher preparation、interdisciplinary|