The Meaning and Evolution of the “Roundness and Fullness” as Beauty using the Techniques of the Fingers: “Yin” and “Nao” of Guqin Music
The lively delights of guqin music depend partly on the vibratos: “Yin” and “Nao.” This statement was first proposed by Hong Xu in the Ming dynasty. Today, the techniques of the fingers, “Yin” and “Nao,” of guqin music are still the key to appreciating guqin music. However, how do these techniques of the fingers form the lively delights and lasting charm of the guqin music? The interpretations of the “Yin” and “Nao” techniques vary greatly among the guqin players and the guqin schools. In this work, I first sort and analyze the techniques of the fingers, “Yin” and “Nao,” collected in the guqin handbooks in the Ming and Qing dynasties by chronology. Then I list the focuses of the techniques of “Yin” and “Nao” to compare the similarities and differences as well as the development among them. Finally, I takes the “Pingsha Luoyan” (Wild Geese Descending On The Sandbank) collected in Mei-an ch’in-p’u as an example to see how the evolution of “Yin” and “Nao” techniques influence the modern guqin players’ interpretation of the meaning of the lively delights and lasting charm of the guqin music.
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