The Prediction of Working Memory on Academic Performance: A Meta-Analysis of Taiwanese Samples
This study examined the relationship of working memory and academic performance by means of meta-analysis. The researches published in Taiwan journals and the dissertations finished by the Taiwanese graduates were collected. Two hundred and fifty effect sizes were identified from 12 journal papers, 41 master theses, and 5 doctoral dissertations. Fixed-effect model and random-effect model were conducted. We performed z tests to examine the statistical significance of the difference between two average effect sizes. It was found working memory and short-term memory were significantly predictive of academic performance. However there was publication bias, that is, the mean of the effect sizes from journal papers was significantly higher than those from Masters’ theses. Those from doctoral dissertations were not significant. The difference between short-term memory and working memory was recognized. Information is stored in these two memory systems, but is processed only in working memory. It was found that in elementary schooling, the prediction of short-term memory was lower than the one of working memory, especially in the first and the second grades. In high schooling, short-term memory was more predictive than working memory. Working memory has four elements: the central executive, phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer. We found that the visuospatial sketchpad was predictive of math performance, not Chinese; the central executive and the phonological loop were predictive of Chinese and math performance. It was implied that the prediction of the visuospatial sketchpad was domain specific and the one of the central executive and the phonological loop was domain general. Finally the implication and suggestions were discussed.
|關鍵詞||工作記憶、後設分析、短期記憶、領域特定性、學業表現、working memory、meta-analysis、short-term memory、domainspecificity、academic performance|