The Coexistence and Conflict of Pseudoscience Belief and Scientific Literacy: Investigate Adults’ Engagement in Scientific and Pseudoscientific Activities
本研究旨在探討臺灣民眾於2012～2015年3年期間偽科學信念和偽科學活動參與（如看偽科學節目）有無顯著變化，進而探討科學素養、偽科學信念和有關科學參與、偽科學參與各面向之相關性。另外，依據2015 年民眾的科學素養和偽科學信念的高、中、低程度，將民眾區分為九群，探討不同偽科學信念的三群民眾在科學素養、科學與偽科學的情意和實務各面向的差異，以及具有較多偽科學健康實踐經驗之民眾特徵。研究資料為2012～2015年公民科學素養調查研究的資料庫。研究結果顯示，臺灣民眾於2012～2015年3 年期間偽科學信念顯著地減低，但健康有關的偽科學經驗（如用磁性療法）和觀看偽科學節目頻率卻顯著地增加。影響民眾參與偽科學健康活動的主因是民眾的偽科學信念，而非民眾的科學素養。低科學素養的民眾中，職業與科學較無關的青年、已婚、女性則最容易接受偽科學信念。值得注意的是，高偽科學信念的民眾在科學學習的愉悅感顯著高於中偽科學信念群。高偽科學信念群有較多高學歷者，屬於樂於學習、接受科學與偽科學事物者，卻可能無法區辨科學與偽科學的差異。建議未來在大眾科學教育方面，可加強女性民眾區辨科學與偽科學的主題（如健康、醫療等），以降低偽科學對民眾可能造成的危害。
The first purpose of this study was to investigate whether Taiwanese adults’ pseudo-scientific beliefs and engagement in pseudo-scientific activities (i.e. watching pseudo-scientific TV programs) changed significantly. The second purpose was to investigate the relationship among science literacy, pseudo-scientific beliefs, and engagement in scientific and pseudo-scientific activities. According to the levels of subjects’ scientific literacy and pseudo-scientific beliefs in 2015 civic science literacy survey, a representational sample of adults was categorized into nine groups to investigate the difference of scientific literacy, scientific and pseudo-scientific affection and practice aspects among three groups with different levels of pseudo-scientific beliefs, and which groups of adults had more experience of pseudoscience health practice. The data base of 2012 and 2015 civic science literacy survey was analyzed. The results indicated that Taiwanese adults’ pseudo-scientific beliefs descended significantly from 2012 to 2015, but their pseudo-scientific experience of health practices (e.g. magnetic therapy) increased significantly. The main factor that influenced adults’ participation in pseudo-scientific health practices was their pseudo-scientific beliefs, rather than their scientific literacy. Among the adults with lows scientific literacy, youth, married, and women seem accept most easily pseudo-scientific belief. It is noted that people with high pseudoscientific beliefs had significantly higher scores of enjoyment in scientific learning than those with medium pseudoscientific beliefs. There are more adults with high education background in the group with high pseudoscientific beliefs. People with higher pseudoscientific beliefs may be interested in learning science and accept scientific and pseudoscientific things, but they lack ability to distinguish between science and pseudoscience. To decrease possible harm from pseudoscience, it is suggested that certain topics (i.e. health, medical treatment) for women to distinguish science from pseudo-science should be addressed in public science education.
|關鍵詞||科學素養、科學參與、偽科學、偽科學活動、engagement in science、pseudoscience、pseudoscientific activity、scientific literacy|