The Introduction of American Education by Missionaries and Chinese Officials and Commoners in Late Ch’ing China before 1894
The aim of this article is to explore the introduction of American Education in late Ch’ing before 1894. Historical method was used: forty-nine volumes of historical and geographic books, traveling records, and diaries written by missionaries, diplomats, local officials and commoners were analyzed. Among them, twenty-six volumes of these had recorded educational events in the U.S. A., involving elementary and middle schools, colleges and universities, girls’ education, military academies, blind and deafen schools, normal schools, professional schools of law, medicine and theology, Several reasons were argued to cause difficulties to get a full picture of American education were found, making borrowing the concepts challenging. First, the educational institutions recorded were located in Washington D. C. and 29 states, and the names of country, states, and educational institutions were translated differently, leading to confusion. Moreover, as the American common education system and school system of 8-4 pattern were just starting to form, it was harder for outsiders to understand. Further, the concepts of civil service examination in China were used to interpret American system by a few authors, causing misunderstanding. Finally, although the educational administration system had been mentioned in some books, it was not clearly stated or explained that the right of education belonged to states instead of the nation.
|關鍵詞||甲午、美國教育、教育移轉、晚清、American education、Chia-Wu、educational transfer、late Ch’ing|