Controlled Dautonomy: Novice Principals’ Schema for District Control and School Autonomy, Vol. 1
目的：本文的目的在了解一群新手校長如何在學校中使用「自主的原則」，讓學校進步。「自主的原則」即作者所謂的，學校領導者能同時兼顧學校本位決定與學區監督兩者的情況。本研究旨在協助學校與學區領導者之間在「受課責的自主」這項機制上更多有效的互動，並增益學校的表現。研究方法：本文採用基模做為本研究指引之框架，並採用質性研究法和訪談來探討相關問題。七名新手校長在這一年中接受三次訪談，每次訪談持續約一小時（n = 21）。最後，研究者使用歸納和演繹編碼對數據進 行主題分析。研究發現：校長傾向於將潛在的學區支持面向分為四類：學校營運、教師教學、倡導與支持和學校願景。他們對四類活動在校長與學區控制之間平衡的看法是動態、多樣的，並取決於校長對不同問題的看法，以及對官僚效能的不同價值觀點。研究限制／意涵：受限於研究方法以及研究樣本較小，本研究之發現不適宜類推到所有受課責自主的情境，後續研究可就本研究之發現在其他情境下是否成立進行探究。實務意涵：本文對學區與學校領導者有其啟示，包括學區需要更好地闡明受課責自主的界線與內涵，並提供校長更有效的培訓和支持，以有效利用自主做為學校改革機制。研究價值／原創性：這項研究填補了以往對校長如何理解「受課責的自主」這個概念的研究缺口，或者更具體地說，這份研究的重點在於釐清學校自主與學區控制之關係樣貌。我們還提供了實踐和可能解決的方式，以改善不斷受到重視但迄今為止仍執行未殆、表現不佳的改革行 動（即受課責的自主）。
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label “controlled dautonomy”-a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable to district oversight. The estudy aims to support more effective interactions between school and district leaders around controlled autonomy to increase performance. Design/ methodology/approach: Using schema as a framework to guide the inquiry, this paper uses qualitative methods and interviewing in particular to explore the questions of interest. Seven novice principals were each interviewed three times over the year each interview lasting approximately one hour (n = 21). Data were analyzed thematically using both inductive and deductive coding techniques. Findings: Findings show that principals tended to group potential district supports into four categories: operations, instruction, advocacy, and vision and their perceptions regarding the balance between their and the district’s control over activities in each category was dynamic, varied and dependent on views relating to issues as broad as values alignment to perceptions of bureaucratic efficiency. Research hlimitations/implications: Because of the small sample size and methodological approach, it may be inappropriate to generalize the findings across all controlled autonomy contexts. Further research in additional settings is encouraged to support the proposed findings. Practical implications: This paper has a number of implications for districts and school leaders. Among these is the need for districts to better articulate the parameters of fcontrolled autonomy and for school leaders to receive more and more effective training and support to effectively utilize autonomy as a mechanism for reform. Originality/value: This work fills a gap in the research regarding on how principals conceptualize controlled autonomy or, more specifically, how they view what school autonomy should look like relative to district control and is this paper’s focus. It also provides insights into practice and potential means to enhance a growing, but so far unevenly implemented and under performing reform minitiative (i.e. controlled autonomy).
|備註||“Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals’ Schema for District Control and School Autonomy,” by Jennie M. Weiner and Sarah L. Woulfin, 2017, Journal of Educational Administration, 55(3), 334-350, @ Emerald Publishing Limited.|