Transformation of Psychological Ownership: Using the Process of Developing a Whole-Class Item Bank in Mathematics as an Example
培養學生喜愛數學是教育事業關切的核心。臺灣地區國民小學學生的數學國際排名名列前茅，然而學生在自信心與喜歡數學的程度卻持續殿後，似乎學生有著不錯的解題能力、卻不甚喜歡「解題」這種活動；因此，本研究選擇具有創造活力的「自由擬題」活動，來促進學生喜歡數學的可能性，進而透過測量學生對題目的擁有感，理解數學學習的情意面如何得以提升。本研究設計一套數學擬題課程，研究樣本為30位國民小學四年級學童，採用混合研究法，資料蒐集以自編之個人與集體擁有感問卷調查為主，統計分析採相依樣本 t 檢定、單因子重複測量變異數分析比較差異，佐以訪談、學習單、擬題題目卷、建議卷及觀察筆記，旨在探討建立班級數學題庫的歷程中，擁有感如何變化。研究發現有二：一、發展過程中各個時間點之集體擁有感均高於個人擁有感，且達顯著差異；二、個人擁有感的發展持續上升，除了最後的第四階段有專家介入外，集體擁有感的發展均有持續下降趨勢。兩種擁有感的轉變，在長期的題庫形成過程中，蘊含著矛盾複雜之情感，足以作為數學教師在實施擬題活動時的重要參考。
Taiwanese students score higher in math learning performance than students in most countries according to Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study fourth grade survey. However, their self-confidence and interest in math often land close to last. In order to find an alternative way to stimulate students’ interests in math, this study explored how the process of establishing a whole-class item bank in mathematics transforms the state of both individual and collective psychological ownership toward math in general. Students not only considered their problems the target of individual psychological ownership but also as involved in the development of the item bank as the target of collective psychological ownership. This study adopted mixed-methods research. Inventories of collective as well as individual psychological ownership were developed and implemented at four time points, and paired-samples t-test and repeated-measures one-way analysis of variation was conducted. Qualitative data were also analyzed on the basis of a three-dimensional structure (i.e., self–object–others) to explore the transformation process from individual psychological ownership to collective psychological ownership. Two findings were yielded. First, the overall average collective psychological ownership was significantly higher than that of individual psychological ownership at all four time points. Second, although the fourth stage included an expert intervention, collective psychological ownership gradually decreased; individual psychological ownership gradually increased. In particular, complicated and conflicting feelings between individual and collective psychological ownership were revealed in the transformation process. These findings contribute to the understanding of using problem posing as an alternative strategy to bridge the gap between interest and achievement in math in Taiwan.
|關鍵詞||個人擁有感、情意面、集體擁有感、數學、擬題、individual psychological ownership、affection、collective psychological ownership、mathematics、problem-posing|